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The Central Nervous System
Transcript of The Central Nervous System
The Spinal Cord
Communication link between the brain and the peripheral nervous system
The Brain Structure
The brain is said to be the center of
intelligence, consciousness, and emotion
. It subdivided into three general regions: the
, and the
- Midbrain is found above the pons
in the brainstem
The Central Nervous System
Information is been
Diseases / Disorder
- a structure that connects spinal cord to the brain, it is located toward the rear and lower portion of a person’s brain.
- involved with
-consists of the
structure located below and largely behind the cerebrum
- responsible for the
maintenance of balance
and coordinated movements of limbs (voluntary motor skill)
- receive information from
which are located within skeletal muscles and joints
If the midbrain is injured...
- Loss of pupillary reaction
- Resting tremor (due to injury to dopamine producing cells)
- Parkinson's disease (caused by degeneration in dopamine producing neurons)
The Central Nervous System
- Sits at the base of the brainstem, where it connects the brain with the spinal cord
- responsible for coordinating reflexes for automatic bodily functions such as swallowing, coughing , sneezing, breathing, heart rate and vasoconstriction
- It made up the brain stem with the pons
- A cluster of
serves as a
between the neurons of the right and left cerebral hemispheres, the cerebrum, and several other areas
- located superior to the medulla oblongata and inferior to the midbrain
- responsible for transmitting messages and dreams
- also assists the medulla oblongata in regulating breathing rate
- Forebrain deals with thought, learning and emotion
- Found in the uppermost portion of the brain
- receives sensory impulses from the organs
- coordinates the signals
- relays the information to the cerebrum
Structure and Function of the Cerebral Cortex
- thin outer covering of grey matter
- responsible for language, memory, personality, conscious thought, and other activities associated with thinking and feeling
- about 5 mm thick and is highly convoluted; covers about 0.5 meter square
- consists of neurons that connect the forebrain with the hindbrain and the sensory systems and the cerebrum
- lies below the thalamus
Primary reflex centre
(thrist, hunger, sleep) and
by the puritary gland
tissue within the skull and spinal column that enclose the brain and the spinal cord
- the largest part of the brain and accounts for
of the total weight of the brain
- divided into
right and left cerebral hemispheres
nerve fiber of the spinal cord
Information transmitter due to it’s
Messages pass through
core made up of unmyelinated nerve fiber.
Major Nerve Track
- contains the centres for intellect, learning and meomery, consciousness, speech and language
- Responsible for
controlling and interpreting
the response to sensory information
Nerves arise from the spinal cord and paired with peripheral nerves.
It branches into two pair from the dorsal-root ganglion.
31 pairs in human bodies.
cluster of neural cells positioned along the spinal cord at the dorsal and ventral root of spinal nerves.
Protective tissues that
the brain and the spinal cord
that surrounds the brain and the spinal cord.
100ml to 150 ml
for average adult
between surrounding bones, brain and spinal cord.
metabolic waste, pathological product away from the brain
Lobes of the Cerebrum
Occipital lobes: receive and analyze visual information
Temporal lobes: main function is auditory reception; share in the processing of visual information
Parietal lobes: receive and process sensory information from the skin
Frontal lobes: integrate information from other parts of the brain and control reasoning, critical thinking, memory, and personality
protect the brain and spinal cord from mechanical injury;
provide blood supply to the brain;
provide space for cerebrospinal fluid to flow
horns, composed of sensory neurons.
horns, composed of visceral neurons.
horns, composed of motor neurons.
toughest and outermost layer which supports the dural sinuses and carries blood from the brain toward the heart
the innermost and the softest layer that lines every sulci and gyri of the brain
the layer between dura mater and pia mater which is filled with “web-like” collagen
- A thick band of white matter that connects the two hemispheres
What will happen if the corpus callosum is cut?
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
- A dense, clear liquid that fills and surrounds the brain and the spinal cord
- Transports hormones, white blood cells, and nutrients
- Transports metabolic waste products, antibodies, chemicals, and pathological waste away
- Acts as a shock absorber to cushion the brain by maintaining the pressure within the cranium
- Cavities within the brain that produce and store cerebrospinal fluid
- Largest of the ventricles
- Resembles a C-shape
- Frontotemporal disorders: damage of frontal and temporal lobes; symptoms include unusual behaviors, emotional problems, difficulty with work, etc.
- Visual Object Agnosia: bilateral damage of occipital lobe; patient can see familiar objects but unable to recognize the objects
- Gerstmann’s syndrome: damage to left parietal lobe; symptom includes right-left confusion, difficulty with mathematics, aphasia and agnosia
Epilepsy: a condition that causes uncontrollable seizures, which can be caused by an overload of neurological electrical activities; one treatment is to cut the corpus callosum to prevent the spread of the epileptic seizures from one hemisphere to the other
- also called the "
- Regulating cell activity by
- Ex. produce
which acts on the breast and induces milk production
Processing Sensory Input
- relays visual and auditory information between areas of the hindbrain and forebrain
- controls eye movement and skeletal muscles
(1) Dura Mater: keeps the CSF
(2) Arachnoid Mater: CSF circulation
(3) Pia Mater: anchor spinal cord,
Infectious viral disease
that people can get at any age (mainly under 5)
in less than
of the infected population
Incorrect treatment may lead to
in spinal cord or brain which CSF can accumulate.
on the spinal cord and damage nerve cells connection.
with hydrocephalus or birth defects.
Weakness of the hands and arms, stiffness in the legs; and sensory loss in the neck and arms.
Damage affects the nerve fibers
through the injured area
part or all of the corresponding muscles and nerves
below the injury site
Chest or lower back injury affect torso, legs, bowel, bladder control, and sexual function.
Neck injury affects movements of the arms and ability to breathe.
Other Structures Within the Brain