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The Central Nervous System

Gr.12 biology presentation
by

Melissa Pan

on 16 June 2015

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Transcript of The Central Nervous System


The Spinal Cord
Communication link between the brain and the peripheral nervous system

The Brain Structure
The brain is said to be the center of
intelligence, consciousness, and emotion
. It subdivided into three general regions: the
hindbrain
, the
midbrain
, and the
forebrain
.
- Midbrain is found above the pons
in the brainstem
The Central Nervous System
The
functional centre
for the
entire
nervous system.

Information is been
integrated
,
evaluated
and
processed
.

Structure
Diseases / Disorder
Injury
Tumor
Infections diseases
Hindbrain
- a structure that connects spinal cord to the brain, it is located toward the rear and lower portion of a person’s brain.
- involved with
coordination
and
homeostasis
-consists of the
cerebellum
, the
medulla oblongata
and
pons
Cerebellum
- A
walnut-shaped
structure located below and largely behind the cerebrum
- responsible for the
maintenance of balance
, the
unconscious coordination
and coordinated movements of limbs (voluntary motor skill)
- receive information from
proprioceptors
which are located within skeletal muscles and joints

If the midbrain is injured...
- Loss of pupillary reaction

- Resting tremor (due to injury to dopamine producing cells)

- Parkinson's disease (caused by degeneration in dopamine producing neurons)

The Central Nervous System
Medulla Oblongata
- Sits at the base of the brainstem, where it connects the brain with the spinal cord
- responsible for coordinating reflexes for automatic bodily functions such as swallowing, coughing , sneezing, breathing, heart rate and vasoconstriction
- It made up the brain stem with the pons
Pons
- A cluster of
neuron fibers
serves as a
message centre
between the neurons of the right and left cerebral hemispheres, the cerebrum, and several other areas
- located superior to the medulla oblongata and inferior to the midbrain
- responsible for transmitting messages and dreams
- also assists the medulla oblongata in regulating breathing rate
Midbrain
- Forebrain deals with thought, learning and emotion
- Found in the uppermost portion of the brain
Thalamus
- receives sensory impulses from the organs
- coordinates the signals
- relays the information to the cerebrum
Hypothalamus
Cerebrum
Forebrain
Structure and Function of the Cerebral Cortex
- thin outer covering of grey matter
- responsible for language, memory, personality, conscious thought, and other activities associated with thinking and feeling
- about 5 mm thick and is highly convoluted; covers about 0.5 meter square
Cerebral Cortex
- consists of neurons that connect the forebrain with the hindbrain and the sensory systems and the cerebrum

- lies below the thalamus

- Regulates
body temperature
,
blood pressure
,
water balance

Primary reflex centre
- control
basic drives
(thrist, hunger, sleep) and
emotions

- coordinates
hormone production
by the puritary gland
-
three
layers of
tough, elastic
tissue within the skull and spinal column that enclose the brain and the spinal cord
- the largest part of the brain and accounts for
4/5
of the total weight of the brain

- divided into
right and left cerebral hemispheres
White Matter
Myelinated
nerve fiber of the spinal cord
Information transmitter due to it’s
electrical insulation
property
Messages pass through
quickly
.

Grey Matter
Butterfly-shaped
core made up of unmyelinated nerve fiber.
Major Nerve Track
- contains the centres for intellect, learning and meomery, consciousness, speech and language

- Responsible for
controlling and interpreting
the response to sensory information
Spinal Nerve:
Nerves arise from the spinal cord and paired with peripheral nerves.
It branches into two pair from the dorsal-root ganglion.
31 pairs in human bodies.
Ganglion
cluster of neural cells positioned along the spinal cord at the dorsal and ventral root of spinal nerves.

Meninges
Protective tissues that
enclose
the brain and the spinal cord
Cerebrospinal fluid:
Clear
,
colorless fluid
that surrounds the brain and the spinal cord.
99% water
100ml to 150 ml
for average adult
Mechanical barrier
against shock
Lubrication
between surrounding bones, brain and spinal cord.
Transport
metabolic waste, pathological product away from the brain
Lobes of the Cerebrum
Occipital lobes: receive and analyze visual information
Temporal lobes: main function is auditory reception; share in the processing of visual information
Parietal lobes: receive and process sensory information from the skin
Frontal lobes: integrate information from other parts of the brain and control reasoning, critical thinking, memory, and personality
Meninges
-
Functions
:

1)
protect the brain and spinal cord from mechanical injury;
2)
provide blood supply to the brain;
3)
provide space for cerebrospinal fluid to flow
(1)
Dorsal
horns, composed of sensory neurons.
(2)
Lateral
horns, composed of visceral neurons.
(3)
Ventral
horns, composed of motor neurons.

Dura mater:

toughest and outermost layer which supports the dural sinuses and carries blood from the brain toward the heart

Pia mater:
the innermost and the softest layer that lines every sulci and gyri of the brain

Arachnoid layer:
the layer between dura mater and pia mater which is filled with “web-like” collagen
Corpus callosum
- A thick band of white matter that connects the two hemispheres

What will happen if the corpus callosum is cut?
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
- A dense, clear liquid that fills and surrounds the brain and the spinal cord
- Transports hormones, white blood cells, and nutrients
- Transports metabolic waste products, antibodies, chemicals, and pathological waste away
- Acts as a shock absorber to cushion the brain by maintaining the pressure within the cranium

Lateral Ventricle
- Cavities within the brain that produce and store cerebrospinal fluid
- Largest of the ventricles
- Resembles a C-shape


Neurodegenerative Conditions
- Frontotemporal disorders: damage of frontal and temporal lobes; symptoms include unusual behaviors, emotional problems, difficulty with work, etc.
- Visual Object Agnosia: bilateral damage of occipital lobe; patient can see familiar objects but unable to recognize the objects
- Gerstmann’s syndrome: damage to left parietal lobe; symptom includes right-left confusion, difficulty with mathematics, aphasia and agnosia
Epilepsy: a condition that causes uncontrollable seizures, which can be caused by an overload of neurological electrical activities; one treatment is to cut the corpus callosum to prevent the spread of the epileptic seizures from one hemisphere to the other
Dorsal
Lateral
Ventral
Pituitary gland
- also called the "
master gland
"
- Regulating cell activity by
secreting hormones
into bloodstream
- Ex. produce
prolactin
which acts on the breast and induces milk production

Processing Sensory Input
- relays visual and auditory information between areas of the hindbrain and forebrain

- controls eye movement and skeletal muscles
spinal nerve
Ganglion
(1) Dura Mater: keeps the CSF
(2) Arachnoid Mater: CSF circulation
(3) Pia Mater: anchor spinal cord,
Autoimmune diseases
Degenerative diseases
Spine Injury
Polio
Infectious viral disease
that people can get at any age (mainly under 5)
Highly
contagious
disease
Polio cause
paralysis
in less than
1%
of the infected population
Non-paralytic polio
mimic flu
Incorrect treatment may lead to
meningitis
.
Hydromyelia
Creates a
cavity
in spinal cord or brain which CSF can accumulate.
Abnormal
pressure
on the spinal cord and damage nerve cells connection.
Associated in
infants
and
children
with hydrocephalus or birth defects.
Weakness of the hands and arms, stiffness in the legs; and sensory loss in the neck and arms.
Damage affects the nerve fibers
passing
through the injured area
Impair
part or all of the corresponding muscles and nerves
below the injury site
.

Chest or lower back injury affect torso, legs, bowel, bladder control, and sexual function.
Neck injury affects movements of the arms and ability to breathe.
Other Structures Within the Brain
Full transcript