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Philippine Art during the Spanish Colonial Regime
Transcript of Philippine Art during the Spanish Colonial Regime
The friars published devotional and catechetical books to proselytize the colonized people, as well as grammar books and vernacular-Spanish dictionaries and incorporated into these publications the first example of vernacular poetry to be printed in the Roman Alphabet.
"Salamat ng Uolang Hoyang"
(Unending Thanks) of
Pedro Suarez Ossorio.
Pompous celebrations, centering around the church, served to draw the colonized people toward the new culture, as well as to give expression to theirs festive spirit that had been manifested in their own rituals.
As early as 1597, a festival was held lasting for several days when the relics of St. Potenciana and of one hundred martyrs and twenty popes arrived in the Philippines to be distributed among the newly built churches. The festivities to celebrate the arrival included parades and processions.
Phillipine Art during Spanish Colonial Regime
When the Spaniards arrived in the Philippines in 1521, the colonizers used art as a tool to propagate the Catholic faith through beautiful images to explain the concepts behind Catholicism, to tell the stories of Christ's life and passion.
Spanish Colonial Period
In the first two centuries of colonization, the local Spanish Government depended upon the trade of Chinese silk with Mexican silver - the Galleon Trade - for its instance and subsistence.
Although it is true that the Spaniards and the Chinese were the ones who benefited from the trade, the profits reached the natives in the course of by-and-sell of their farm products.
Progress of some sort, therefore touched even the rural areas; within a span of a hundred years, the original mission settlements flourished into big towns. In the resulting growth of socialization, the Pricipalia unabashedly copied Spanish customs as symbols of their rising status. In termarriage with Spanish and Mexican soldiers further added to the hispanization of our culture.
The propagation of catholic faith could not have been successful without religious paintings, engravings, and sculpture, as well as devotional hymns and verses, the earliest example of literary and musical pieces to which the natives were exposed. Thus, by the middle of 17th century, many natives begun to produce poems, paintings, and musical compositions which echoed Western artistic styles. These early colonial artists were chiefly church clerks, converts who were prominent in the community and whom the missionaries had singled out for their artistic talents. These, together with the members of the town ruling class, the cabeza de barangay, who had the privilege of being exempted from force labor.
The 19th century saw a rise of national consciousness among Filipinos. This was brought about by many factors, the most important of which were the economic and political developments resulting from the opening of the Philippine ports to world trade in 1834 , as well as the opening of the Suez Canal.
National consciousness was expressed through the reform movement following in the execution of fathers Jose Burgos, Mariano Gomez and Jacinto Zamora.
Music and Dance
At first the only reading matter approved by the friars was the life of Christ and the saints.
A metrical tale composed of octosyllabic verses called corrido, to be distinguished from the awit which is made pf dodcasyllabic lines.
In the 18th century Philippine dances showed considerable European influence. The
enjoyed a vogue in the islands, but these were interpreted here with willowy grace and light
The making of effigies of these religious personages with symbols drew out the fertile imagination of our early carvers and gave them opportunity to represent sercular matters.
The concept of patronage emerged. Artisans were commissioned and paid to carve, engrave, and paint. They replaced the arts that were once done in a communal spirit and community setting for rituals. The church, particularly the friars, became the new patron of the arts.
Since most art produced during the first two centuries of Spanish occupation were for the church, the friars enforced strict supervision over their production. Until the 19th century, art was only for the church and religious use.