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BIOMES: Tropical Rainforest

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by

Deanna Fernando

on 25 September 2013

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Transcript of BIOMES: Tropical Rainforest

Where are Tropical Rainforests located?
THE TROPICAL RAINFOREST
a biome of diversity
a presentation by
Deanna Fernando
block 1-4
located between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn
Ergo it's called a
"Tropic
al Rainforest
"
Climate
Average yearly temperature of 20° C (68° F) to 34° C (93° F)
and a monthly average of over 18° C (64 °F).
Annual average of precipitation of roughly 125 to 660 cm.
Biotic and Abiotic Features
Adaptations
Plant Adaptations
Animal Adaptations
_________________ are tall, large growths that blend from trunk to roots. Nutrients exist mainly on the surface of the soil so tropical trees don't grow deep roots, therefore buttress roots help stabilize the tall trees.
Tropical Rainforests have elevations no higher than 3,000 feet
Monthly temperature average: 18
°
C
Annual precipitation average: 125 cm to 660 cm
*Note the dry season that occurs in the summer. Rather than having COLD and HOT seasons, these rainforests
have WET and DRY seasons
Buttress Roots
Food Web
jaguar
When trees need to expel excess heat and water, they release water vapour from their leaves. This process is called _____________.
Only about 1% of sunlight reaches the forest floor. Climbing vines, like _____ , and certain plants, like _______, then inhabit high tree branches to take advantage of the available sunlight.
To avoid the growth of fungus and bacteria, plants with large leaves grow "________". These are pointed ends that grow at the tip of the leaves to get rain water to slick off immediately.
Buttress Roots
lianas
orchids
transpiration
drip tips
Since little sunlight breaks through the canopy to reach the floor, low plants grow large leaves to absorb more of the sparse solar energy.
Poison Arrow Frogs
To avoid the predators on the forest floor mammals, such as sloths and monkeys, have _________ to swing from tree to tree.
long arms
Birds have developed ________________. These are used to pick or cut fruit, reach in crevasses, or for hunting prey.
long, large beaks
Because of the mass number of wild life species fighting for food in the rainforest, certain animals have learned to adapt and eat foods not consumed by many other animals or hunt at a different time etc. This is called _____________________.
Prey often sport ______________________ to ward off predators. It acts as a warning saying "I'm poisonous!"
vibrant
colours
bright,
Both predators and prey ___________ by mimicking the environment either by colour or texture. One example of camouflage is jaguars. Their dark
colour and spots help them blend
into the forest as the hunt for
their prey.
are bright in colour as they are highly poisonous
camouflage
Jaguars
are dark and spotted to camouflage while hunting
python
Interspecific Competitive Relationships
ENERGY PYRAMID OF TROPICAL RAINFORESTS
of a
insects
fruit bats
toucans
bamboo trees
banana trees
coconut trees
orchids
nuts and seeds
macaws
monkeys
chimpanzee
red eyed tree frog
Symbiotic Relationships
"Indonesian rainforests
pulped to extinction"
______________________________________
How Humans Have Impacted the Environment
Bibliography and References
Buttress Roots
Thank you for watching
MUTUALISM
Capuchin monkeys have a _________________________________ with the rainforest's flowering plants
The Capuchin monkeys feed on the nectar deep in the center flower
Pollen from the flower sticks to monkey's face and is spread through the forest
mutualistic symbiotic relationship
This is a mutualistic relationship because the __________ ________ by receiving food and the _______________ fit by being pollinated.
monkeys
benefit
flowers
benefit
COMMENSALISM
Orchids growing on a tree
Epiphytes (plants that grow on on other plants) and tall trees often have _______________ ______________________
Orchids, for example, latch onto and grow on trees
Orchids take advantage of the height and are provided with more sunlight
commensalistic
relationships
symbiotic
This interaction is considered to be commensalism because the ____________ by being given access to more sunlight while the _______________.
orchids benefit
tree is unaffected
monkey feeds
flower is pollinated
PRODUCERS
PRIMARY CONSUMERS
SECONDARY CONSUMERS
TERTIARY CONSUMERS
orchids
insects
bananas
bamboo
Tropical
Rainforest

jaguars
chimpanzees
red-eyed tree frogs
fruit bats
macaws
100 % energy
10% energy
1% energy
0.1% energy
Environmental
__________________________________________ was the title of an article pulled from The Guardian published in February 2002. The article goes on to outline how paper companies are slowly (or not so slowly) wiping out the Indonesian (along with other) rainforests by cutting down trees to turn into paper.

The Tropical Rainforest covers only 6% on land on Earth and contains what is estimated to be roughly 50% of all of Earth's land animal species. These rainforests are greatly biodiverse and we can't afford to annihilate these ecosystems. Animals, such as certain tiger and elephant species, are being edged toward extinction as mankind eliminates there homes. Not to mention the mass amount of pollution produced while cutting down trees and the amount of trees being cut down.
"Indonesian rainforests pulped to extinction"
________________________
Future impact on humans...
Solutions to the problems?
Damage
________________________________
__________________
Humans don't quite realize that their actions of today affect their futures. Well, more like they realize, but don't act upon it.

The mass amount of pollution will harm the environment to the point Earth becomes unlivable.

Toxic crops
Depletion of animals
Too much pollution for trees to correct
Atmosphere damage and potentially over heating of Earth
The need to raise more animals in captivity
Genetically modify food
Generalized struggle to live
5 Questions:
1) Why is it called the TROPICAL RAINFOREST?

2) What is the purpose of buttress roots?

3) How much of Earth's land does the Tropical Rainforest cover?

4) What are the 4 layers of the Rainforest?

5) What is the average annual amount of precipitation?
Answers:
1) It is located between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn 2) Buttress roots help stabilize tall trees 3) 6% of land 4) Emergent, canopy, understory, forest floor 5) 125 to 660 cm of rain yearly
The Tropical Rainforest, located around the equator, is a hot, humid environment that receives ample amounts of rain annually. Although it covers a shy amount of 6% of land on Earth, this biome is home to roughly 50% of Earth's land organisms. The tall trees create 4 layers to accommodate these animals. From tallest right to the bottom, the trees form
emergent
,
canopy
(home to 90% of forest
animals and is 60 to 90 feet above ground),
understory
, and
forest floor
(little lives here due to the little sunlight). The sun in this
biome is key to life. The abundance of plants require the sunlight to photosynthesize and reproduce. Plants even grow on trees to reach the sun. Together with the mass rainfall, the sun allows a large amount of organisms to survive off the solar energy. With sun and rain, the humidity that follows allows animals to save the energy they would use to keep warm and put it toward reproducing, another reason for the mass amount of animals. With so much comes a lot of death, and therefore decomposition. Because of this nutrients mainly exist on the top of the soil, but even then there isn't much. This explains why most wildlife live higher up in the trees.
resource partitioning
In the Tropical Rainforest fruits, nuts, seeds and leaves are largely consumed foods. For example, the herbivorous apes the gorilla and gibbon feed mainly on fruit and leaves and therefore competition develops between the two. Now it is safe to say that in this competition both have developed some resource partitioning adaptations. This refers to how gorillas typically travel and feed along the ground whereas gibbons can stay in the trees and include insects and small birds in their diet.
VS
_
Have large industries properly utilize tree plantations

Fight against deforestation and protect the rainforests

Recycle paper

Avoid producing more pollution by being "green"
Clear cutting and deforestation: Results in large areas of habitat gone and animal species to deplete

Pollution: Little care of environment from humans results in mass amounts of pollution. All of this pollution is absorbed by trees in the rainforests, harming plants and animals
*Included on an
attached file
Full transcript