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The Human Body
Transcript of The Human Body
Tendons & Ligaments
long bones are longer than they are wide • muscles use long bone like levers to move the limbs
short bones nearly equal in length and width • enable movement in multiple directions
protect soft organs • provide broad surface for muscle attachment
elaborate shapes that do not allow these bones to fit into other catagories
Ball and Socket
Adjacent bones bound by collagen fibers extending from the matrix of one into the matrix of the other
Adjacent bones bound by cartilage
Adjacent bones covered with hyaline articular cartilage separated by lubricating synovial fluid and enclosed in a fiberous joint capsule
(Synovial Joint) • hemispherical head of one joint fits into a cuplike depression of another
Examples: shoulder and hip joints
(Synovial Joint) • oval convex surface of one bone
articulates with an elliptical depression of another
Examples: radiocarpal and metacarpophalangeal joints
(Synovial Joint) • slightly concave or convex bone surfaces that slide across each other
Examples: intercarpal, intertarsal, sternoclavicular joints; joints between the articular processes of the vertebrae
a connective tissue with a rubbery matrix, cells contained in lacunae and has no blood vessles
covers the articular srufaces of many bones
supports organs such as the ear and larynx
(Synovial Joint) • one bone has a convex surface that fits into a concave depression of the other • Like a door hinge, only moves in one plane
Examples: elbow, knee, interphalangeal (finger and toe) joints
(Synovial Joint) • One bone has a projection that fits into a ringlike ligament of another • Allows the bones to rotate one top of one another
Examples: top 3 vertebrae in the spine and the radioulnar joint in the elbow
(Synovial Joint) • Both bones are concave on one side and convex on the other • Allows for movement in two directions
The only saddle joint is the trapeziometacarpal which is located at the base of the thumb
Bone to Bone
Muscle to Bone
Example of a Tendon
(muscle to bone)
Example of a Ligament
(bone to bone)
If Valentine's Day cards were anatomically correct...
Superior vena cava
oygen poor blood returns to the heart from the upper body
Oxygen poor blood returns to the heart from the lower body
Collects oxygen poor blood from the supieror and inferior then forces it to the right ventricle
controls blood flow between the right atrium and right ventricle.
Collects oxygen poor blood from right atrium and forces it through the pulminary valve.
controls blood flow between right ventricle and pulmonary arteries.
carries blood from the heart to the lungs where it will be oxygenated
carries oxygen-rich blood from the lungs back to the heart
collects oxygen rich blood and forces it through the mitral valve
controls blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle.
(LARGEST AND STRONGEST) chamber in the heart
pushes blood out through the aortic valve and into the body
controls blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta
carries oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body
Carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body
Carry oxygen deficient blood from the body back to the heart
Deliver oxygenated blood to the body tissue
Red Blood Cells
White Blood Cells
Pick up oxygen from the lungs and deliver it to the body
Pick up carbon dioxide from others cells and unload it in the lungs
a clear extracellular fluid that makes up the liquid in the blood
Aid in the immune system
Defend the body from pathogens and cancer cells
Platelets are not cells but small fragments of megakaryocute cytoplasm
promote blood clotting
dissolved old blood clots
When tendons and ligaments are ruptured, they no longer hold the joint together properly and it is free to bend in unnatural ways. Willis McGahee suffered a knee injury while playing football in college, tearing his anterior and posterior cruciate and medial collateral ligaments. He made a full recovery from the disturbing event.
Respiration has three meaings:
1. ventilation of the lungs (breathing)
2. the echange of gases between air and blood and between blood and tissue fluid
3. the use of oxygen in celluar metabloism
Upper Respiratory Tract
Lower Respiratory Tract
The Trachea & Bronchial Tree
Warms, cleanses, and humidifies inhaled air
Senses odors and tastes
Serves as a resonating chamber to amplify the voice
Also known as the "Windpipe"
Rigid tube about 4.5. in. long and 1 in wide
Supported by 16-20 C-shaped rings of cartilage that reinforce the trachea and keep it from collapsing when you inhale.
Nasopharynx (passage for air)
Oropharynx (passage for air, food, & drink)
Laryngopharynx (passage for air, food, & drink)
Inhaled air turns 90* downward, filtering large dust particles that cannot make the turn
Space between the soft palate and the root of the tongue
The bottom end of the Pharynx between the esophagus and the Oropharynx
Keeps food and drink out of the airway (the epiglottis and the glottis seal to block the windpipe)
A forest of Bronchial Trees
a highly branched system of air tubes extending from the primary bronchus to about 65 thousand terinal bronchioles
• In frogs and other amphibians, the lung is a simple sac lined with blood vessels (like 1 alveoli). This is sufficient to meet their oxygen need. Humans, however, need a more complex lung. Rather than having 1 sac, human lungs are spongy masses composed of 150 million little sacs.
• Tiny blood vessels called capillaries wrap around the alveoli and exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen
• a somewhat conical organ witha broad, concave base resting on the diaphragm and a blunt peak called the apex.
• processes food
• extracts nutrients from it
• eliminates the residue
The selective intake of food
The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into a form the body can use
Uptake of nutrients into the epithelial cells of the digestive tract and then into the blood or lymph
The elimination of undigested residue
through a four step process...
The digestive system
The Mouth through the Esophagus
The Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas
Chemical Digestion and Absorption
The Small Intestine
The Large Intestine
The functions of the mouth, or oral cavity, include ingestion, taste, mastication (chewing), the beginning of chemical digestion, deglutition (swallowing).
The esophagus is a muscular tube that moves swallowed food down to the stomach.