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LEADERSHIP & PARTICIPATION
Transcript of LEADERSHIP & PARTICIPATION
Prepared by: Sharla Lim
Sydney Chua Ching
The Nature of Leadership
Variations in the use of Leadership Skills
Behavioral Approaches To Leadership Styles
“Simple management behaviors such as giving timely recognitions to employees, supporting their continued development, and providing coaching and guidance mean a lot to employees- especially when they are anxious.”
influencing others to enthusiastically work toward achieving objectives or goals.
support, voluntary effort, and goal achievement.
-Honesty and integrity
-Personal drive and energy
-Desire to lead
-Flexibility and adaptiveness
-Knowledge of business
-Creativeness and Originality
Narcissism- leaders who are filled with their own importance, exaggerates their own achievements, seek out favors, and exploit others for their personal gain.
Alpha Dogs- leaders who have a manner of being intensely aggressive, egocentric, controlling, and domineering
- a knowledge of, or ability in any type of process or technique.
ability to work effectively with people and to build teamwork.
ability to think in terms of models, frameworks, and broad relationships.
Successful leadership requires behavior that unites and stimulates followers toward defined objectives in specific situations. They key task for a leader is to recognize different situations and adapt to them on a conscious basis.
Leaders in organizations are also followers. They give support to their superiors just as their employees give to them. The ability to follow or “Dynamic Subordinancy” is one of the first requirements for good leadership. Effective follower leads to being a future leader.
inappropriate personal objectives
poor choices among available options
model of organizational behavior
-threats and punishments
-less competent subordinates
-security and structure
-positive or negative
-fear and frustration
-seldom generates the strong organization commitment
express ideas, make suggestions, take action
2 Leadership Styles
-Robert Blake, Jane Mouton
-identify manager’s own style
-concern for people, concern for production
Fiedler’s Contingency Model
-depends if the overall situation is favorable, unfavorable or in an intermediate stage of favorability
-determined by 3 additional variables that relate to the followers, task and organization: leader-member relations, task structure and leader position power.
Leader Position Power
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model
-depends on maturity level of subordinate
-task competence and commitment (motivation)
-guidance and supportive (4 major styles)
telling, selling (coaching), participating (supporting), and delegating.
Autocratic View Power
-Is a fixed amount
-Comes from the authority structure
-Is applied by management
Participative View Power
-Comes from both official and unofficial channels
-Applied by shared ideas and group activities
-Flows in all directions
PROGRAMS FOR PARTICIPATION
-When a company uses either a very significant approach with widespread application or a sufficient number of programs to develop a substantial sense of empowerment among its employees.
1. SUGGESTION PROGRAMS
2. QUALITY EMPHASIS
-For many years, both union and nonunion firms have organized groups of workers and their managers into committees to consider and solve job problems.
3. SELF-MANAGING TEAM
-A more formal version natural work groups that are given a large degree of decision making autonomy; they are expected to control their own behavior and results.
-Sometimes called semi-autonomous work groups or sociotechnical teams
-Voluntary groups that receive training in process improvements
Total Quality Management
-Gets every employee involved in the process of searching for continuous improvements in their operations.
4. EMPLOYEE OWNERSHIP PLANS
-Employee ownership of a firm emerges when employees provide the capital to purchase control of an existing operation.
“Buy the product you make” →
“Buy the company you work for”
Theory X beliefs by Manager
Lack of support from higher levels
Managerial fear of lost:
Lack of adequate training for:
Problems encountered in early stages
Substantial efforts needed to implement
Prerequisites for Participation
Adequate time to participate
Potential benefits greater than costs
Relevance to employee interests
Adequate employee abilities to deal with the subject
Mutuel ability to communicate
No feeling of threat to either party
Restriction to the area of job freedom
Self- awareness and Self-management
Social awareness and relationship management
Differing Employee needs for participation
Be fully responsible for their actions and their consequences
Operate within the relevant organizational policies
Be contributing team members
Respect and seek to use the perspectives of others
Be dependable and ethical in their empowered actions
Demonstrate responsible self-leadership
Identifying the issues to be addressed
Specifying the level of involvement desired
Providing relevant information and training (in advance)
Allocating fair rewards
It is the mental and emotional involvement of people in group situations that encourages them to contribute to group goals and share responsibility for them.
-Motivation to Contribute
-Acceptance of Responsibility
WHY is Participation important?
IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS IN PARTICIPATION
-Benefits of Participation
-Limitations of Participation
-Managerial Concerns about Participation
Total Quality Management
Employee Ownership Plans