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LEADERSHIP & PARTICIPATION

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Lorenz Eclavea

on 12 February 2014

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Transcript of LEADERSHIP & PARTICIPATION

LEADERSHIP &
PARTICIPATION
Prepared by: Sharla Lim
Joanne Tan
Sydney Chua Ching
Lorenz Eclavea
Annie Yang

The Nature of Leadership
Variations in the use of Leadership Skills
Behavioral Approaches To Leadership Styles
Style
“Simple management behaviors such as giving timely recognitions to employees, supporting their continued development, and providing coaching and guidance mean a lot to employees- especially when they are anxious.”
-Douglas Klein
Leadership
-Process;
influencing others to enthusiastically work toward achieving objectives or goals.
-Elements;
support, voluntary effort, and goal achievement.

Positive Traits
-Honesty and integrity
-Personal drive and energy
-Desire to lead
-Self-confidence

-Cognitive ability
-Charisma
-Flexibility and adaptiveness
-Knowledge of business
-Positive affectability
-Creativeness and Originality

Negative Traits:
Narcissism- leaders who are filled with their own importance, exaggerates their own achievements, seek out favors, and exploit others for their personal gain.

Alpha Dogs- leaders who have a manner of being intensely aggressive, egocentric, controlling, and domineering
Technical Skill
- a knowledge of, or ability in any type of process or technique.
Human Skill-
ability to work effectively with people and to build teamwork.
Conceptual Skill-
ability to think in terms of models, frameworks, and broad relationships.

Situational Flexibility
Followership

Successful leadership requires behavior that unites and stimulates followers toward defined objectives in specific situations. They key task for a leader is to recognize different situations and adapt to them on a conscious basis.

Leaders in organizations are also followers. They give support to their superiors just as their employees give to them. The ability to follow or “Dynamic Subordinancy” is one of the first requirements for good leadership. Effective follower leads to being a future leader.

Leadership Style

-Philosophy
-Skills
-Traits
-Attitudes
Positive Leadership
Negative Leadership
Bad Leadership
Basic characteristics
inappropriate personal objectives
poor choices among available options


model of organizational behavior

Autocratic Leaders
-centralize power
-threats and punishments
-negative



Advantages:
-satisfaction
-quick decisions
-less competent subordinates
-security and structure

Consultative Leaders
-positive or negative

Disadvantages:
-fear and frustration
-seldom generates the strong organization commitment
-low turnover
-absenteeism

Participative Leaders
decentralize authority
social unit
express ideas, make suggestions, take action

2 Leadership Styles
1) Consideration
-employee orientation
-human needs
-teamwork
-psychological support

Managerial Grid

-Robert Blake, Jane Mouton
-identify manager’s own style
-concern for people, concern for production

2) Structure
-task orientation
-closely monitoring
-ignoring
-urging

Fiedler’s Contingency Model
-depends if the overall situation is favorable, unfavorable or in an intermediate stage of favorability
-determined by 3 additional variables that relate to the followers, task and organization: leader-member relations, task structure and leader position power.


Three Variables
Leader-member relations
Task Structure
Leader Position Power

Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model
-depends on maturity level of subordinate
-task competence and commitment (motivation)
-guidance and supportive (4 major styles)
telling, selling (coaching), participating (supporting), and delegating.

Autocratic View Power
-Is a fixed amount
-Comes from the authority structure
-Is applied by management
-Flows downward

Participative View Power
-Variable amount
-Comes from both official and unofficial channels
-Applied by shared ideas and group activities
-Flows in all directions

PROGRAMS FOR PARTICIPATION
Participative Management
-When a company uses either a very significant approach with widespread application or a sufficient number of programs to develop a substantial sense of empowerment among its employees.

1. SUGGESTION PROGRAMS
2. QUALITY EMPHASIS
-For many years, both union and nonunion firms have organized groups of workers and their managers into committees to consider and solve job problems.
3. SELF-MANAGING TEAM
-A more formal version natural work groups that are given a large degree of decision making autonomy; they are expected to control their own behavior and results.
-Sometimes called semi-autonomous work groups or sociotechnical teams

Quality Circles
-Voluntary groups that receive training in process improvements
Total Quality Management
-Gets every employee involved in the process of searching for continuous improvements in their operations.
4. EMPLOYEE OWNERSHIP PLANS
-Employee ownership of a firm emerges when employees provide the capital to purchase control of an existing operation.

“Buy the product you make” →
“Buy the company you work for”

Theory X beliefs by Manager
Lack of support from higher levels
Managerial fear of lost:
Power
Status
Control
Lack of adequate training for:
Managers
Employees
Problems encountered in early stages

Substantial efforts needed to implement
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P
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Prerequisites for Participation
Adequate time to participate
Potential benefits greater than costs
Relevance to employee interests
Adequate employee abilities to deal with the subject
Mutuel ability to communicate
No feeling of threat to either party
Restriction to the area of job freedom
Emotional Intelligence
Self- awareness and Self-management
Social awareness and relationship management
Terms:
Differing Employee needs for participation
Underparticipation
Overparticipation
Responsibilities:
Employees;
Be fully responsible for their actions and their consequences
Operate within the relevant organizational policies
Be contributing team members
Respect and seek to use the perspectives of others
Be dependable and ethical in their empowered actions
Demonstrate responsible self-leadership
Managers;
Identifying the issues to be addressed
Specifying the level of involvement desired
Providing relevant information and training (in advance)
Allocating fair rewards
Participation
It is the mental and emotional involvement of people in group situations that encourages them to contribute to group goals and share responsibility for them.
-Involvement
-Motivation to Contribute
-Acceptance of Responsibility
WHY is Participation important?
IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS IN PARTICIPATION
-Benefits of Participation
-Limitations of Participation
-Managerial Concerns about Participation
Participative Programs
Suggestion Programs
Quality Circles
Total Quality Management
Self-managing teams
Employee Ownership Plans
Full transcript