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Meiosis, Inheritance and Genetics

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by

Jaime Richards

on 9 January 2014

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Transcript of Meiosis, Inheritance and Genetics

Meiosis, Heredity and Genes
BRAINSTORM
ELEMENTS
copy and paste as needed and take advantage of an infinite canvas!
Meiosis
Creation of Offspring
Heredity
Genetics Key Terms
Flashback

How do we know whether something is alive?
Organisms have to be able to reproduce to grow, repair and pass on characteristics to their offspring.
"Survival of the Fittest"
Simple organisms such as bacteria create offspring that are identical to the parent cell. However, this can be a disadvantage because Genetic diversity increases survival.
DNA is the genetic code of life
How are Traits passed from parent to offspring?
Each cell divides to produce 4 daughter cells that
Contain a random mix of half of the cells genes.
What determines which traits are passed down or not?
Independent Assortment
Through fusion of sperm and egg, or fertilization, two haploid gametes become a new diploid zygote.
Exactly 1/2 of your genes are from each parent
The zygote then divides by Mitosis to grow into a fetus.
How is meiosis different from mitosis?
Objectives:
1. Understand the role of chromosomes in determining an individual's sex.
2. Understand how new combinations of alleles may be generated in a zygote through fusion of male and female gametes.
is the passing of traits from parent to offspring

Gender is determined by
the inheritance of sex chromosomes.
In Women, each X chromosome is completely different. One X is from the mother and the other X is from father (paternal grandmother)
Summary
REFLECT
1. How many chromosomes are in a human cell?


2. What are the two major types of cells in the human body?


3. Where did your genes come from?


4. What determines an individual's sex?
A side note on Stem Cells
XY

Nondisjunction
Nondisjunction is the failure of chromosomes to separate during meiosis (anaphase 1 or 2)
This can occur in egg or sperm cells and most result in non viable offspring.
Examples of chromosomal disorders
Not enough chromosomes: 45, X: Turner syndrome
Too many Chromosomes
47, XXY: Kleinfelter's
47 XYY: Results in normal male Phenotype
47 XX/XY +21: Down's Syndrome
3 copies of chromosome 21
Chromosomal Disorders are generally more influential on an individual that mutations. Why?




There can be up to 4,000 genes on a single chromosome or over 100 million base pairs of DNA.
Disorders can also result
from mutations in the genetic code
Think back
What is DNA made of?
Nucleotides! Specifically:
Adenine, Thymine
Guanine and Cytosine
According to Chargaff's rule DNA
pairs in specific ways.
Match the sequence to its corresponding sequence below.
ATTAGCTACGAT
Chromosome Ratios
Gene:
Allele:
Homozygous:
Heterozygous:
Phenotype:
Genotype:
Dominant:
Recessive:
Chapter 6.4
Full transcript