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Consumption of Sugar Sweetened Beverages (SSBs)

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Katrina Gorospe

on 23 April 2015

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Transcript of Consumption of Sugar Sweetened Beverages (SSBs)

Introduction

Definition:
Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) consist of all carbonated beverages and fruit drinks with added sugar, sports drinks, sweetened waters and teas, and energy drinks.
Description:
Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in excess

Introduction cont.
Significance to Public Health:
High consumption rates of SSBs can result in several poor health outcomes: diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, oral health issues, and unhealthy eating habits.
High intake of added sugars can exacerbate existing health problems and contribute to nutrient shortfalls.

Introduction cont.
Statistics:
United States is presently facing an obesity epidemic.




Background Determinants
Demographic Issues
– Age : Adolescents and young adults
– Gender : equally amongst both
– Educational Level : low educated
– Occupation : low and middle class
– Low SES
- Race: racial minorities

Background Determinants cont.
Environmental Influences
– Neighborhood – low SES communities
– College – places on campus, dorms
– Work Environment – coffee stands/runs

Introduction cont.
Prevalence:
Consumption of SSBs in excess amounts is a common risk factor found amongst the American population.
SSBs are the single largest source of added sugar and the top source of energy intake in the US diet.

Consumption of Sugar Sweetened Beverages (SSBs)
Group 8
Lateese Perry
Katrina Gorospe
Leonardo Luna
Vivian Vu

Source: Han, E., & Powell, L. (n.d.). CONSUMPTION PATTERNS OF SUGAR SWEETENED BEVERAGES IN THE UNITED STATES. Retrieved April 22, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3662243/

Source:Han, E., & Powell, L. (n.d.). CONSUMPTION PATTERNS OF SUGAR SWEETENED BEVERAGES IN THE UNITED STATES. Retrieved April 22, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3662243/
Background determinants

Protective Factors/reasons for continued/discontinued use of SSB
Consequences of Consumption of SSBs
Article Application #1: Theory of Reason Action

-Results:
After the survey was taken, here is the data gathered.
sample=515 adults w/children ages 3-16.
sample description: 67% mothers/stepmothers, 21% father/stepfather, 11% relatives
age: 41 with a SD of 9.7
race: 51% white, 46 % African American, and 3% other.
income: 55% earned less than 60 K, 74% worked outside of home, 36% had a HS diploma or less, 30% reported some college, and 34% had a college degree.
age of target child: 9.76 years w/ a SD of 4.
gender: 56% were males
After the initial survey, they are shown the ads and here are the final results.
performers= caregivers whom intended to perform the target behavior of eliminating/reducing SSB consumption, which was 3%.
intenders= whom possibly will eliminate/reduce SSBs, which was 61%.
nonintenders=whom won’t even consider trying to eliminate/reduce SSBs
during family meals -36%


The belief with the strongest association with intention was to decrease the risk of your child developing diabetes, followed by knowing that you are doing something good for your family, and help prevent weight gain in your children.These beliefs emerged as the strongest correlates with intention to cut
back the target child’s SSBs.


Article Application #2
Activity
Culture
- Latinos and African Americans are more likely to consume SSBs
• Religion
No indication of religious beliefs correlated with consumption of SSBs

Background determinants

Cognitive factor
Awareness and Attitudes:
Don’t see it as a danger to their health
Beliefs and motivations:
sugary drinks are more enjoyable, readily available
source: Cognitive and home environmental predictors of change in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among adolescents. (n.d.). Retrieved April 23, 2015, from http://journals.cambridge.org/download.php?file=/BJN/BJN103_05/S0007114509992297a.pdf&code=85361eedef8d0ee47ed3eff3d6c22b2f
2/3 adults, and 1/3 children are either overweight or obese.
23.9 million or (31.8%) children are overweight
And of those, 12.7 million are obese.
Each year, the US spends an estimated $190 billion on obesity-related conditions, or 21% of all US health care costs.
Introduction cont.
What is the daily recommended sugar intake for Americans?
According to the American Heart Association: Adults:
Men: 36 grams or 9 teaspoons of sugar per day
Women: 20 grams or 5 teaspoons of sugar per day
Children:
3 teaspoons or 12 grams of sugar per day

Incidence:
Very few US adults drink less than the recommended ≤8 ounces per day
The average American consumes about 22.2 teaspoons of added sugar per day

Introduction cont.
For comparison: A can of soda can have up to 40 grams or 10 teaspoons of sugar.
This behavior (consumption of SSBs) has become a detrimental health behavior that is rapidly growing in the United States.

Relevance to HSC 421
PROS:
make it more likely for your family to drink milk or water at mealtime,
save money
improve your family members’ sleep
make you feel like you were doing something good for your family
help prevent weight gain

CONS:
make eating meals less enjoyable
make your life more stressful
make your children unhappy


source:Jordan, A., Piorrowski, J., Bleakley, A., & Mallya, G. (2012). Developing Media Interventions to Reduce Household Sugar Sweetened Beverage Consumption. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 640(1), 118-135. Retrieved February 2, 2015, from http://ann.sagepub.com.mcc1.library.csulb.edu/content/640/1/118.full.pdf html

Consequences of SSB
weight gain
potential risk of being obese, which could cause a high risk of developing CVD, heart disease, various cancers, etc...
there are countless of interesting ingredients in SSB, each with several side effects.
One interesting ingredient is called MSG or monosodium glutamate. It is listed in various processed foods and is NOT listed in the ingredients list of soda. Typically MSG is very addictive. “Is there a processed food/ that you eat that you can’t seem to give up? If you said yes, it probably has a lot of MSG.
¹According to a recent study in the consumption of MSG in the rural areas of Thailand, if one consumes more than 5 g of MSG daily, that individual has an increase risk of developing metabolic syndrome.
²Also fun fact, today’s Thai cuisine uses MSG as a common food additive, with estimates of a daily intake of 4 g of MSG…
³It is stated by a non-peer-reviewed source that MSG is hidden from the ingredients list. That there are over 40 different ingredients that contain MSG in some sort of form or shape. If MSG is somehow taken off in the production of various processed foods, lots of industries will lose a lot of $$$.

Sources: ¹Tanphaichitr, V., Leelahagul, P., & Suwan, K. (2000). Plasma amino acid patterns and visceral protein status in users and nonusers of monosodium glutamate. Journal of Nutrition, 130(4S suppl), 1005S-06S. Retrieved April 15, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10736371
²Insawang, T., Selmi, C., Cha’on, U., Pethlert, S., Yongvanit, P., Areejitranusorn, P., & Hammock, B. (2012). Monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake is associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a rural Thai population. Nutrition & Metabolism (Lond), 9(50). Retrieved April 15, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3583269/
³Hidden Sources of MSG. (2014, March). Retrieved April 16, 2015, from http://www.truthinlabeling.org/hiddensources.html

-Specific theory used:
Integrative Model of Behavior Change and Prediction, otherwise known as the Theory of Reason Action.

-Purpose/aim of study or program:
Was to use the integrative model of behavior change and prediction (TRA), to create a pre-survey on the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages to see what specific intentions,attitudes, and beliefs one has and to use the information to create a an effective advertisement in order to promote/reduce the consumption of SSB’s.

-Methods:
Only residents of Philadelphia were targeted. The survey asked several questions regarding: eating patterns of the family, daily consumption of various SSB’s and/or other beverages, an inventory of the current SSB’s and/or beverages in the house at the time of the survey, the caregiver’s intentions, attitudes, normative pressure, and self-efficacy relevant to SSB reduction; and demographic measures that include ethnicity, income, and education. After the survey is issued, they use the information gathered to create a few advertisements in order to help promote the reduction/elimination of SSB in the households of Philadelphia. Anyone who participated will then receive a post-test to see if any of their beliefs, attitudes, and/or intentions are altered after seeing the advertisements.

Source: (for the last 4 slides)
Jordan, A., Piorrowski, J., Bleakley, A., & Mallya, G. (2012). Developing Media Interventions to Reduce Household Sugar Sweetened Beverage Consumption. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 640(1), 118-135. Retrieved February 2, 2015, from http://ann.sagepub.com.mcc1.library.csulb.edu/content/640/1/118.full.pdf html
Conclusion
Evidence, theory and context - using intervention mapping to develop a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children
HeLP- Healthy Lifestyles Program:
a school-based intervention to prevent childhood obesity
Steps: reduce consumption of sweetened drinks, eating healthier
increasing physical activity

Intervention
A health week was created for middle school children
children were taught about healthier eating habits and were encouraged to bring the concepts home
teachers would teach in the morning while fun activities were done in the afternoon

Results
3 behavior change objectives - establish motivation, take action, stay motivated
parents found that their children were will to change their behavior based on what they learned
9-10 years olds were the most receptive
succeeded in helping families make small behavioral changes, but was time consuming

Social Cognitive Theory
states that behavior is defined by a person’s individual characteristics and environmental factors
intervention was designed to increasing self-efficacy through the use of vicarious learning and reinforcements

Health Policies
American Heart Association along with leaders of the beverage industry removed full-calorie soft drinks in schools
introduced smaller portions and lower-calorie options
Results: 88% fewer beverage calories shipped to schools and a 95% reduction in the volume of full-calorie soft drinks

adding a 10% tax on sweetened beverages
a one cent tax per ounce could bring in $13.2 billion in revenue that can be used in obesity prevention

Health Research
30% of children are overweight
children are replacing high-calories sugary drinks with “healthier” drinks such as juice, low-calories beverages, and energy drinks
sugar sweeten beverages play a role in the obesity and diabetes and cardiovascular diseases that affect America

Source: Han, E., & Powell, L. (n.d.). CONSUMPTION PATTERNS OF SUGAR SWEETENED BEVERAGES IN THE UNITED STATES. Retrieved April 22, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3662243/
Source: Decreasing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption. (n.d.). Retrieved April 22, 2015, from http://www.heart.org/idc/groups/heart-public/@wcm/@adv/documents/downloadable/ucm_453908.pdf
Source: Decreasing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption. (n.d.). Retrieved April 22, 2015, from http://www.heart.org/idc/groups/heart-public/@wcm/@adv/documents/downloadable/ucm_453908.pdf
Source for article: Lloyd, J., Logan, S., Greaves, C., & Wyatt, K. (2013, July 13). Evidence, theory and context - using intervention mapping to develop a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children. Retrieved April 22, 2015, from http://www.ijbnpa.org/content/8/1/73
What are
sugar-sweetened beverages?
References

Cognitive and home environmental predictors of change in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among adolescents. (n.d.). Retrieved April 22, 2015, from http://journals.cambridge.org/download.php?file=/BJN/BJN103_05/S0007114509 992297a.pdf&code=85361eedef8d0ee47ed3eff3d6c22b2f
FACTS: Decreasing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption. (2013, March). Retrieved March 23, 2015, from http://www.heart.org/idc/groups/heart- public/@wcm/@adv/documents/downloadable/ucm_453908.pdf
Fact Sheet: Sugary Drink Supersizing and the Obesity Epidemic. (2012, June). Retrieved March 23, 2015, from http://cdn1.sph.harvard.edu/wpcontent/uploads/sites/30/2012/10/sugary-drinks- and-obesity-fact-sheet-june-2012-the-nutrition-source.pdf
Han, E., & Powell, L. (n.d.). CONSUMPTION PATTERNS OF SUGAR SWEETENED BEVERAGES IN THE UNITED STATES. Retrieved April 22, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3662243/
Hidden Sources of MSG. (2014, March). Retrieved April 16, 2015, from http://www.truthinlabeling.org/hiddensources.html
Hu, F. B. (2013), Resolved: there is sufficient scientific evidence that decreasing sugar- sweetened beverage consumption will reduce the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases. Retrieved April 22, 2015, from Obes Rev, 14: 606–619. doi:10.1111/obr.12040
Insawang, T., Selmi, C., Cha’on, U., Pethlert, S., Yongvanit, P., Areejitranusorn, P., & Hammock, B. (2012). Monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake is associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a rural Thai population. Nutrition & Metabolism (Lond), 9(50). Retrieved April 15, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3583269/
Jordan, A., Piorrowski, J., Bleakley, A., & Mallya, G. (2012). Developing Media Interventions to Reduce Household Sugar Sweetened Beverage Consumption. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 640(1), 118-135. Retrieved February 2, 2015, from http://ann.sagepub.com.mcc1.library.csulb.edu/content/640/1/118.full.pdf html
Lloyd, J., Logan, S., Greaves, C., & Wyatt, K. (2013, July 13). Evidence, theory and context - using intervention mapping to develop a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children. Retrieved April 22, 2015, from http://www.ijbnpa.org/content/8/1/73
Main, E. (2009, August 25). Your Recommended Sugar Intake: Less Than a Soda per Day. Retrieved April 22, 2015, from http://www.rodalenews.com/recommended- sugar-intake
Tanphaichitr, V., Leelahagul, P., & Suwan, K. (2000). Plasma amino acid patterns and visceral protein status in users and nonusers of monosodium glutamate. Journal of Nutrition, 130(4S suppl), 1005S-06S. Retrieved April 15, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10736371
Zoellner, J., Chen, Y., Davey, B., Yu, W., Hedrick, V., Corsi, T., & Estabrooks, P. (2014). A pragmatic randomized-controlled health literacy trial targeting sugar- sweetened beverage consumption among adults: Rationale, designs & methods. Talking Health. Retrieved April 22, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3939427/?report=reader

Zoellner, J., Chen, Y., Davey, B., Yu, W., Hedrick, V., Corsi, T., & Estabrooks, P. (2014). A pragmatic randomized-controlled health literacy trial targeting sugar- sweetened beverage consumption among adults: Rationale, designs & methods. Talking Health. Retrieved April 22, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3939427/?report=reader
source: FACTS: Decreasing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption. (2013, March). Retrieved March 23, 2015, from http://www.heart.org/idc/groups/heart- public/@wcm/@adv/documents/downloadable/ucm_453908.pdf
Fact Sheet: Sugary Drink Supersizing and the Obesity Epidemic. (2012, June). Retrieved March 23, 2015, from http://cdn1.sph.harvard.edu/wpcontent/uploads/sites/30/2012/10/sugary-drinks- and-obesity-fact-sheet-june-2012-the-nutrition-source.pdf
Hu, F. B. (2013), Resolved: there is sufficient scientific evidence that decreasing sugar- sweetened beverage consumption will reduce the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases. Retrieved April 22, 2015, from Obes Rev, 14: 606–619. doi:10.1111/obr.12040
Main, E. (2009, August 25). Your Recommended Sugar Intake: Less Than a Soda per Day. Retrieved April 22, 2015, from http://www.rodalenews.com/recommended- sugar-intake
Main, E. (2009, August 25). Your Recommended Sugar Intake: Less Than a Soda per Day. Retrieved April 22, 2015, from http://www.rodalenews.com/recommended- sugar-intake
Zoellner, J., Chen, Y., Davey, B., Yu, W., Hedrick, V., Corsi, T., & Estabrooks, P. (2014). A pragmatic randomized-controlled health literacy trial targeting sugar- sweetened beverage consumption among adults: Rationale, designs & methods.
Main, E. (2009, August 25). Your Recommended Sugar Intake: Less Than a Soda per Day. Retrieved April 22, 2015, from http://www.rodalenews.com/recommended- sugar-intake
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