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Chapter 10 Power and Influence
Transcript of Chapter 10 Power and Influence
Influence Tactics How People React to Influence Tactics Contingency of Power Power is generated only under certain conditions:
Substitutability, Centrality, Discretion, Visbility Treasure Map to Success Chapter 10
Power and Influence Workplace Power Contingencies of Power Influence and Persuasion Consequences of
Power and Influence The Treasure There are 5 sources of power in organizations: An agreement by top management that allows certain members to request specific behaviors from others. Legitimate Power Reward Power The ability to apply positive reinforcement through reward incentives in order to leverage power. Coercive Power The ability to apply power by imposing negative reinforcement. Expert Power The ability to obtain power through knowledge. Referent Power The potential to gain power by respect for identification. Information Power When people control the flow of information to others Centralized information flow: the individual decides which information is distributed (ex: boss decides which information is given to employees)
Decentralized information flow: no one has control over the information flow (ex: many co-workers share the information) Substitutability The power of a person in a company is the strongest, when it lacks of substitutes that offer the same knowledge.
(ex: an employee who is the only one who has expertise on a meaningful topic) Nonsubstitutability of employees: they become nonsubstitutable when they possess knowledge that is not written down Nonsubstitutability of companies: occurs when businesses differentiate themselves from the rest and offer services that no one else can offer Centrality Interdependence between the power holder and others
Refers to the question: How many people will be affected by your action? Ex: strike of transit workers during Christmas holidays in New York City. This showed that the workers had a high centrality because the strike impeded workers from showing up to work. Discretion Refers to the degree of freedom an employee has in making decisions without asking supervisors for permission. Visibility Ex: The marketing vice-president of Nike decides when and where to place the company’s new marketing campaign and does need to ask the Nike’s CEO. Making others aware that you control valued resources or knowledge Being visible in the organization. Ex: displaying of educational diplomas in the office or the wearing of white coats of medical professional to show expert power Social Networking and Power “It’s not what you know, but whom you know that counts!” Networking increases power in three ways:
1) The more you network, the more likely it is that you receive valuable information increases your
2) Employees identify themselves better with people in the network decisions are more
likely made in your favor.
3) Networking is important to achieve centrality because networkers are
better known in the organization and their talents will be easier
recognized. Power Complying with a request because of the requester's legitimate power as well as the target person's role expectations. Silent Authority is also known as deference to authority, because it deals with both parties specific position in the organizational hierarchy. Assertiveness Negative
Consequences of Power Vocally influencing ones subordinates by reminding them of their position and job obligations and your position of delegating requests. Ex: Coach Saban and Coach Muschamp are two of the most assertive coaches in college football today. Marine Corps drill instructors contently remind recruits of their position in boot camp. Information Control Influencing employees by controlling their access to certain information or manipulating the information to change their attitudes or beliefs Coalition Formation Forming a group that attempts to influence others by pooling the resources and power of its members Upward Appeal Gaining support from one or more people with higher authority or expertise Soft Influence Tactics Persuasion Using logical arguments, factual evidence, and emotional appeals to convince people of the value of a request. This ability to appeal to a specific person's belief or logic, allows it to be one of the most effective influence strategies. Ingratiation Attempting to increase liking by, or perceived similarity to, some targeted person Impression Management The practice of actively shaping our public image In an working environment, supervisors tend to use different tactics to
Everyone has different methods of getting work
accomplished. Exchange Promising benefits or resources in exchange for the target person's compliance. This can include past favors and benefits. 1) Increasing power over others can potentially undermine an individual's effectiveness and interpersonal relations. 2) When people are too powerful they can lose their intuitiveness and look at situations more generically. This can cause them to cling to stereotypes and have problems empathizing with their co-workers. 3) Too much power causes leaders to have more automatic thinking. They are not mindful of their actions because they are not concerned with consequences. 4) A famous example of abuse in power is the Worldcom and Enron scandal. These scandals involved ethical issues superseding the power of upper management which resulted in bankruptcy and loss of jobs. There are three ways in which people react to the influence tactics of co-workers:
Resistance, Compliance, Commitment 1) Resistence occurs when co-workers resist the intent of the influence tactic and argue or delay before engaging in the activity. 2) Compliance occurs when the co-worker per forms the request with a minimum level of effort, because their job requires for them to perform that task. 3) Commitment occurs when the co-worker identifies with the task or superior and performs the request with the highest amount of motivation. Most of the team people react better to the influence of soft tactics rather than hard tactics. Soft tactics can help build relationships and trust, where as hard tactics can ruin relationships and trust. An employee that is obedient and compliant with their boss's orders result in a positive image and can potentially lead to promotions and other awards. Giving organizational rewards is valued by employees and can increase their self-worth and motivation. Employees can use coercive power to motivate co-workers to operate in a team effort. Employees who gain expert knowledge can acquire power and the ability to influence the structure of an organization and it's outputs. An employee who has an interpersonal attraction has referent power and is well respected by the general population of an organization. This results in a positive atmosphere for the employees helping build trust and motivation in the workplace. Presented By: