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Cell Cloning

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by

A. Gupta

on 16 November 2015

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Transcript of Cell Cloning

Clones are organisms that share the exact same genetics, and DNA. Clones can either be formed naturally, or in a science lab. Cell clones, are
cells
that have the exact same DNA.
Why Do We Clone?
As said before, cloning stem cells could help humans greatly, as cells can be cloned to make duplicates of human limbs.
how is Cell Cloning Used?
There are 2 types of methods that are used to clone mammals. One is
Artificial Embryo Twinning
, and the other is
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
.
What is Cell Cloning?
Artificial Embryo Twinning
The natural way that cells twin, is that the embryo splits into two parts. Those 2 parts split into twins over and over again, into their own individualized parts. Since these parts come from the same source, they have the same DNA and therefore are clones.

This same process can be done artificially, in a petri dish. The embryos are then placed into a mother where they can finish developing.
Risks of Cell Cloning
Do you think that with these risks, cloning should continue or not? How can we make cell cloning safer?
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT), is another approach to creating an artificially cloned twin.

Somatic: A cell in the body, other than any reproductive cells.
Nuclear: The nucleas, a compartment that holds the DNA of a cell.
Transfer: The movement of a thing from one place to another.

The very first clone that was made, (Dolly the Sheep), had been cloned from the somatic cell of a female sheep, that had been planted with the nucleus of an egg cell. The cell behaved like an embryo, and when placed in another mother sheep, Dolly was born!
Cloning History:
Human Cloning:
1880: August Weismann proposed his theory that the DNA of a cell would recede with each cell division.

1880: Wilheim Roux, challenged Weismann's theory with an experiment.

1894-1962: Scientists and researchers study about "cloning", a word that existed only after 1962.

1958: F.E. Steward cloned the very first vegetable-a carrot.

1962: John Gurdon claimed to have cloned african tree-frogs.

1963-1995: Cloning studies continue.

1996: Dolly the Sheep, very first mammal to sucessfully be cloned.

2001: A baby Bull Gaur was cloned, the very 1st endangered animal to be cloned.

Current: Scientists are still trying to research cloning and how it can be effectively used in our modern world. Endangered and extinct species (Mammoths for example), are trying to be cloned.




There is no evidence that humans have been successfully cloned.

South Korean scientists in 1998 claimed to have cloned a human embryo, but say that the embryo formation had gotten trifled with in one of it's early stages.

Humans and mammals are more difficult to clone, as their spindle proteins are located too close to the chromosomes in eggs. Spindle proteins are 2 essential cell proteins in cell division. When getting to the nucleus of the egg for the donor, the spindle proteins get in the way, and thus effect the process.

Scientists today are still working on efficiently cloning mammal cells.
Cell Cloning
Cell Cloning
The very 1st clone ever
Artificial Embryo Twinning, is the low-technology mimicking of the essential process that forms identical twins.
A Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer is a different way of forming clones, using somatic and nuclear cells.
You will learn more about these types of cloning processes throughout the presentation.
The cloning of cells, is used to make duplicates of human limbs too.
Cell-Cloned Human Ear
There are very many ways cloning could benefit the world, but a few ways are:
Cloning could also be used to revive endangered species. Say that there was only 1 dinosaur left on earth, but what if we cloned it? There would be many alive, possibly even today!
How else do you think the cloning of animals and humans could be used?
Although research cell cloning is useful in many ways, there are some reasons for concern.
Animal Cloning:
There is a high rate for failure. Out of every 1000 tries, only 30 animals are successfully cloned.
Animals are born oversized, and so are their organs. This can lead to breathing, blood, and other bodily problems for them.
The clones may look the same, but the personalities of the clones are very different.
The animal's cells age faster than normal.

Human Cloning:
After the first mammal was cloned, concerns arose saying that in the future, if humans were cloned, then there would be lack of genetic diversity. Then, issues arose saying that the personalities would not match, and the new human clone would act inhumane. Overall, people believed that playing "god", was not a good idea, as the order of life would be messed with. In July 2001, it was made illegal in the U.S.A. to clone any human being.
Clones would be born with birth defects.
Women would have to provide with their eggs, and dangerous surgery would be required.
Why do you think human cloning could be useful?
Bibliography:
https://www.genome.gov/25020028#al-4

http://www.geneticsandsociety.org/article.php?id=3190

http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cloning/whatiscloning/

http://bsp.med.harvard.edu/?q=node/18

http://www.genome.gov/10004765

http://www.livescience.com/32079-how-stem-cell-cloning-works-infographic.html

http://www.nature.com/news/human-stem-cells-created-by-cloning-1.12983

http://www.animalresearch.info/en/medical-advances/timeline/cloning-dolly-the-sheep/

http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/genetic/cloning3.htm

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/cloning-endangered-animals/

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/aqa_pre_2011/evolution/reproductionrev5.shtml

http://www.globalchange.com/What-is-Human-Cloning-How-to-Clone.-But-Ethical/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloning

http://www.clonesafety.org/cloning/facts/why/

http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cloning/whyclone/

http://www.globalchange.com/noclones.htm
How do you think cloning will advance in the next 50 years?
Full transcript