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Ancient Egyptian Religion
Transcript of Ancient Egyptian Religion
God of embalming and death
Son of Osiris
The god who helped to embalm Osiris after he was killed by Seth
The god who watched over the process of mummifying people, conducted the souls through the underworld, testing their knowledge of the gods and their faith. He placed their heart on the Scales of Justice during the Judging of the Heart, and he fed the souls of wicked people to Ammit Man with hawk head and headdress with a sun disk
God of the sun, heaven, kingship, power, light
King of the gods and all-father of creation
Commands the chariot that rode across the sky during the day
Only god not on Earth besides Osiris God of winds, storms, chaos, evil, darkness, strength, war, conflict, and Upper Egypt
Man with the head of an unknown animal. Sometimes he takes the form of a crocodile. He is represented as a hippopotamus or a black pig in his battles with Horus.
In the Legend of Osiris, Seth kills Osiris and scatters his body, then claims the throne of the gods for his own. He is later struck down by Horus, the son of Osiris, who restores order to the world and sets up the pharaohs as the guardians of Maat. Seth and Horus continue to battle for control of the world, setting up an epic conflict of good versus evil. God of the Underworld, the dead, past Pharaohs, agriculture (old form), fertility (old form)
Green-skinned man dressed like a pharaoh
Husband of Isis and father of Horus and many other gods
Was killed and torn apart by his brother Seth, who shut his body in a chest and threw it into the Nile. His wife Isis, gathered the pieces and put them back together using spells and rituals and rose from the dead as Isis's son.
Lived in the underworld as the lord of the dead after he was killed. Even though he was a god, he could no longer dwell in the land of the living.
The spells and rituals cast by Isis, plus many others given to the people by the gods over the centuries, were collected into The Book of the Dead. This book was later given to the Egyptians so that they could give eternal life to all their dead God of the living Pharaoh, rulers, law, war, young men, light, the sun
Falcon-headed man, but he is also shown as a falcon, a lion with the head of a falcon, or a sphinx
He is regarded as the prince of the gods and the specific patron of the living ruler
The most popular story of Horus is the one in which he grows to manhood to avenge the death of his father Osiris by battling against his cruel uncle Set. In many writings, he is said to continue to battle Set daily to ensure the safety of the world. God of creation, craftsmen, artisans
In the Memphite theology, Ptah is the primal creator, the first of all the gods, creator of the world and all that is in it. He is not created, but simply is.
A man with a punt beard, wrapped up like a mummy, but with his hands free which grip a great staff made up of the symbols for life, stability, and power God of women, mothers, children, magic, medicine, and the Ritual of Life
A beautiful woman in magnificent clothing, sometimes shown wearing the sun disk
She was the daughter of Nut and Geb and the mother of Horus
She had many of the same attributes of other mother-goddesses found all over the world
She was revered as the great protector, prayed to for guidance, and beseeched for peace in the world
Was worshipped almost universally by all Egyptians
Her worship was taken up by the Greeks and the Romans, and indeed, Isis followers are still found today
She is never shown as selfish or cruel, except to those who would harm those she loves. Power and compassion, crafty but merciful, Isis represents all the qualities of women Was the god of air and wind first then, a fertility god
The Creator of all things. During the New Kingdom he became "The king of the gods"
A bearded Man wearing a cap surmounted by two tall plumes. A ram, a ram headed man, or a ram headed sphinx. He was said to be able to assume any form he wished, with each of the other gods being one of these forms.
From the eighteenth dynasty on he was a national deity. Through political means managed to assimilate many lesser gods
Self created at the beginning of time. Believed to be the physical father of all Pharaohs Nephthys God of the dead, funerals, the house, and women
A woman with the symbols for "basket" and "house" on her head
Wife of Seth- she did not support him in his bid for power
In fact, she does the opposite, aiding her sister Isis in finding the pieces of Osiris' body
She is believed to be the mother of Anubis
Revered as the head of the household of the gods, and her protection is given to the head woman of any house
Stands at the head of the bed to comfort women in childbirth Nut God of the sky, the firmament
A naked woman painted with stars bending over the world, her hands and feet touching the four cardinal points. She is often shown being held up by Shu and standing over her husband-brother Geb
Nut is the incredibly ancient sky-goddess.
She is the daughter of Shu and Tefnut and the mother of Osiris, Isis, Set, and Nephthys
Nut protects the world from the darkness outside it and all the demonic creatures that dwell in that darkness
The sun god (Ra, Khephri, others depending on the myth) would travel along her body each day and at night enter the entrance to the underworld near her fingers Geb As the God of the earth, Geb was one of the most important of ancient Egypt's gods
His parents were Shu, the god of air, and Tefnut, the goddess of moisture
Osiris, Isis, Seth and Nephthys were the children of Geb and Nut
Geb is usually represented in the form of a man who who wears either the white crown to which is added the Atef crown, or a goose
Was often portrayed laying on his side on the earth, and was sometimes even painted green, with plants springing from his body. Earthquakes were believed to be the laughter of Geb The people of ancient Egypt were polytheistic which means that they believed in many gods. Egyptians worshipped these gods with animal sacrifices, incense, and many processions where people carried the image of the god from one place to another. People believed that all of Egypt belonged to the gods, and that the Pharaoh was the representative on earth of the gods, or maybe a kind of god himself, and so everything in Egypt sort of belonged to the Pharaoh. The Egyptian "Book of the Dead" contains the major ideas and beliefs in the ancient Egyptian religion. Because their religion stressed an afterlife, Egyptians devoted much time and wealth to preparing for survival in the next world.They thought that when you died, Anubis would weigh your soul against a feather, and if your soul was heavier than the feather (with bad deeds), you would be punished. They thought that after you died you went to a new world, just like this one, and so they put into your grave everything you would need in the next world. The Egyptians saw death as a transitional stage in the progress to a better life in the next world. They believed they could only reach their full potential after death. Each person was thought to have three souls, the "ka," the "ba," and the "akh." For these to function properly, it was considered essential for the body to survive intact. The entire civilization of Ancient Egypt was based on religion, and their beliefs were important to them. Their belief in the rebirth after death became their driving force behind their funeral practices. When a person died, the priests recited prayers and a final attempt was made to revive the deceased. The body was then washed and purified in a special shelter called an ibu. The body was then taken the wabet, which was the embalmer's workshop. A cut was made in the left side, and all the organs were removed and stored in containers known as canopic jars. The body was then packed with a salt called natron for a period of forty days. After the forty days had passed, the insides were filled with linen or sawdust, resin and natron. The body was wrapped in bandages with jewelry and amulets between the layers. A portrait mask was placed over the head of the deceased by the Chief Embalmer, who wore a jackal mask to represent Anubis. The wrapped body, or mummy, was put into a coffin.
Burial Tombs After a period of about 70 days, in which the mummification process took place, the mummy was placed in a decorated coffin. Furniture, carved statues, games, food, and other items useful to the next life were prepared to be buried with the mummy. The last ritual performed by the priest on the mummy was called the "Opening of the Mouth." This ceremony was to magically give the deceased the ability to speak and eat again, and to have full use of his body. After placing the mummy in the sarcophagus, the tomb was sealed. Siblings Sources "E"Ancient Egyptian Gods; Isis." Ancient Egypt Online. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Apr. 2011. <http://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/isis.html>.
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A man standing with his arms raised, usually holding his daughter Nut and standing over his son Geb.
Shu, along with his sister Tefnut, were the first deities to be created by Atum.
He is the lord of cool air and the upper sky.
He was believed to be the one responsible, like Atlas, for holding up the firmament and separating it from the earth. Overview Death Embalming Tefnut She is the goddess of moisture, warm air (remember that even in ancient times, very little rain fell in Egypt)
A woman lying horizontally between the firmament and earth.
Sometimes she is pictured helping her consort Shu hold up Nut.
The first deity created by Atum in the beginning
Quick Overview Walk Like An Egyptian