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Transcript of 600-1450 CE
Muhammad made a journey to Mecca, spreading Islam. This began Islam's history and is honored by all Muslims in their own journey to Mecca, the Hajj.
Muhammad's teachings and deeds are recorded in the Hadith, which is used to understand the Qu'ran, the Muslim holy book. The Hadith also contains the five pillars, central Islamic beliefs: faith, charity, prayer, fasting, and the Hajj. Song Tang Sui Ming Zheng He Mongol-Christian Diplomacy Decline Porcelain Woodblock Printing and Moveable Type Gunpowder Frankish Empire Carlingian Empire Holy Roman Empire Ottoman Empire Decline Influence of Christianity in Europe Religious Reform Movements in the Middle Ages Crusades Results of Crusades Aztec Religion Feudalism Feudalism in Europe and Japan Feudal Monarchies Feudal Society in Europe Agriculture and Trade Agricultural Diffusion Trade in Indian Ocean Long Distance Trade in Eastern Hemisphere Development of Islands Oceania Pacific Islands Bubonic Plague After Muhammad's death, caliphs, or religious leaders, began the rapid spreading of Islam. They spread the word through pilgrimages. Muslims took hold of many empires in the first century of caliph rule:
633-637: Byzantine Syria, Palestine, and most of Mesopotamia
640s: Byzantine Egypt and North Africa
By 651: Sassanid Dynasty and Persia
By 718: Hindu India, Northwest Africa, and Iberian Peninsula
Under Muslim rule, only people who did not convert to Islam were made to pay taxes, or jizya. Only Muslims held power and authority. In 750, the Ummayad rule came to an end due to an uprising in Persia. The uprising was led by Abu al-Abbas, who then founded the Abbasid Dynasty.
Abbasid central power was in the Dar-al Islam, or house of Islam. Unlike the Ummayads, Abbasids allowed non-Muslims to become leaders. The dynasty focused on ruling their vast empire. Trade with China, India, and sub-Saharan Africa played and important role in the dynasty.
Abbasid rulers: ulama, or religious experts
qadis, or judges Qadi Ulama Commercial centers promoted trade on Silk Road: Nishapur, Bukhara, and Samarkard .
Revived classical roads were used for fast travel through Dar al-Islam.
Camels were used for overland trade, as they were better suited for the desert.
Caravansaries- source of lodging, food, and water
Ocean travel increased with technology, such as the compass, the lateen sail, and the astrolabe.
Sakks- letters of credit, used for large-scale trade. Later used in Europe. Caravansarai in Iran Pros Cons Outlawed female infanticide (killing of infants)
Ruled dowries to go to brides, not husbands
Saw women as equal to men, not property Emphasized male dominance
Women controlled strictly by male guardians
Polygamy: men permitted 4 wives
Women forced to wear veils in public Dar al-Islam: "house of Islam" and Islamic land
Persian Influence: techniques, ideas of kinship, language (both written and spoken) used in literature.
Indian Influence: math (algebra, trigonometry, geometry), Arabic/Hindu numbers
Greek Influence: philosophy, medical writings, translated Greek and Roman writings found in libraries Mid-7th Century: Muslims had reached India, merchants reaching northern and southern coasts
Relationships made with Persians pre-Islam were helpful in spreading Islamic faith. Many Turkish people migrated to India, one of which was Mahmud Ghanzi. This Turkish leader destroyed many Buddhist and Hindu sites. This, surprisingly, took no toll on the Muslim-Persian relationship. The Sui Dynasty recovered from Han turmoil by:
creating a strong central government
building palaces, granaries, and repairing defensive walls
creating the Grand Canal- artificial waterways that connected Hangzhou and Chang'an
The sui Dynasty Ended:
Rebellions broke out in the 610s
Emperor Sui Yangdi was assasinated in 618 How the Tang Dynasty ruled:
developed a system of roads within the kingdom
distributed agricultural land equally, keeping it out of wealthy hands
examinations were required to obtain a government job
military conquests to Manchuria, Tibet, Korea, and Northern Vietnam Second emperor, Tang Taizong, was a Confucian ruler. He built a great capital at Chang'an. First emperor, Song Taizu, distrusted military. He focused more on civil exams, industry, education, and the arts.
Problems they faced:
bureaucracy was too big and caused financial problems
scholars lacked military experience, leading to a weak military Neo-Confucianism was a mix between Buddhist thought and Confucian beliefs, developed by Song leaders. This is important because it shows Buddhism's lasting influence on China.
wrote "Family Ritual"- set of instructions for family ceremonies (weddings, funerals, etc.) Dictionary.com Definition:
an eclectic philosophical movement incorporating Buddhist elements with an adaptation of Confucianism Japan's earliest people were nomads from northeastern Asia with their own culture.
establishment of agricultural society and central power
Nara- built as replica of Chang'an
fusion of traditional Shintoism with Buddhism and Confucianism
Chinese values- Only boys received formal education
Decline-land held mainly by wealthy elite Medieval Japan included the Kamakura and Muromachi periods. During this time, power was held in regional warlords, or daimyo, as opposed to central power.
There was much emphasis on military discipline, especially bushido, emphasizing the importance of loyalty to a warrior's lord. Samurai, mounted warriors, played an important role in Japanese society.
This period ended when the Tokugawa dynasty once again centralized power. Kamakura (1185-1333) marked by land-based economies and military power in a specialized fighting class, samurai
much violence during this period led to great interest in Buddhism, therefore the religion flourished Muromachi (1336-1573) government significantly weaker than that of the Kamakura, as there was a long civil war
conflict between two ruling class:
Ashikaga- ruled in Nara, held Kamakura's dependence on samurai
Godaigo- ruled in Kyoto, put an end to samurai class The Frankish Empire was an agricultural society established in Northern Europe (France, Germany, and Low Countries). It oversaw development decentralized politics within its lands.
Clovis- political and military leader; led many campaigns, one of which ended Roman authority in Gual, making the Franks the most powerful empire in Europe at the time
Clovis converted to Christianity, as did the Franks, and gained the support of the former Roman Christians, the Catholic Church, and the pope.
This unification was a great advantage that helped the Franks defeat the Muslims at Tours, France in 732. Why did Muslims and Franks fight at Tours? As Muslim rule rapidly spread, they pressed the Frankish borders. They had attacked the empire and surrounding empires before, slaughtering their men. The Franks, and other European nations, united to defeat the threat to their land and people. They defeated the Muslims, causing them to retreat. Muslims- travelers introduced citrus fruits, rice, sugarcane, and cotton to sub-Saharan Africa
Europeans- crusaders first introduced to sugarcane and brought it back to Europe; plantations began and slave trade was introduced Minority of Muslims, focusing on a personal relationship with Allah instead of strict Islamic practice.
Worship traditional gods, seeing them as manifestations of Allah.
Spread to India, sub-Saharan Africa, and southeastern Asia, its flexible approach appealing to some. Limited trade and contact due to expanse of the Pacific Ocean
Settlements- Easter Island, New Zealand, Tahiti, Marquesas Islands, and Hawaiian Islands
Agriculture- yams, sweet potatoes,
breadfruit, bananas, coconut, and taro
pigs and dogs domesticated
fishponds in Hawaiian Islands Australian Aborigines developed trade routes with other nomadic peoples. They traded things like stone clubs, trinkets, flowers, and iron axes.
New Guinea herded swine and grew root crops.
No contact was made between these people and advanced society until late 1700s. 14th century Muslim traveler, kept a record of his travels through the Dar al-Islam
Traveled to many places (India, East Africa, etc.), acted as a government official in each place, and spread the proper ways of Islam. Charles the Great, or Charlemangne centralized government and calmed disputes between leaders. His rule, 768-814, was a great time for Franks. He expanded the empire to Spain, Bavaria, Italy, and Rome.
No money for a bureaucracy-
Charles ruled on his own, traveling through the kingdom, his power pronounced by aristocratic deputies and the Roman Catholic Church
missi dominici- group of official designated by Charles; oversaw activities of all local authority Charlemangne became emperor in 800, dying 14 years later.
His son, Louis the Pious, succeeded him. He quickly lost control of his bureaucracy.
Louis's three sons fought over the inheritance- each received an equal portion (Treaty of Verdun, 843)
External pressure added to the decline:
Muslims in the south
Magyars in the East
Vikings in the North Larger ships and commercial organization led to more trade in the Indian Ocean.
Planning: rhythms of monsoons, ships able to go further from the coastline, warehouses built to store goods, trade conducted in stages due to monsoons
Indian ports (stations for traders from China and Africa)- Cambay, Calicut, Quilon
East African trade- gold, iron, and ivory
Chinese trade- silk and porcelain
Indian trade- pepper
Portugal controlled Indian Ocean trade starting in the 16th century Two primary routes:
Silk Road- best for light luxury items (silk and precious stone)
the sea- used for bulkier items (coral and building materials)
Major trading cities- Hangzhou, Alexandria, Khanbaliq, Kilwa, Constantinople, Quanzhou, Cairo, Melaka, Venice, Cambay, Timbuktu, and Caffa
Trade cities were very wealthy. As a result, the citizens did not usually pay taxes.
Trade mainly went uninterrupted, with the exception of Mongol military and the Black Death (Bubonic Plague). The plague spread from southwest China to Europe. Fleas on rats and squirrels, along with Mongol military campaigns and trade, spread the disease. It killed about 25 million European people, a third of the population, and heavily disrupted trade.
Physical effects: swollen lymph nodes
internal hemorrhaging which caused discolored inflammations
60-70% of people who contracted the disease died, most within
days of seeing symptoms
Cold Scandinavian climate prevented the plague from spreading there
There was no negative impact on India
Population recovered quickly, within 100 years Political and social order established by medieval European nobles. They were trying to protect their land and keep order during chaotic times. Lords had the power to control local affairs, collect taxes, control military, and settle legal disputes. There was a strong bond between political and military authorities. Europe Japan Code of Conduct Warriors Local Leaders Ruler Chivalry Knights Lords King Samurai Emperor Bushido Daimyo In both, aristocratic women ran their own households. Developed in France and England after the fall of Rome.
Hugh Capet- succeeded Carolingians
Captain Kings (Capet's descendents- used power to spread influence)
Norman Dukes- built states in which all power came from them
Papacy and Italian city-states: Bologna, Genoa, Milan, Florence, and Venice
stable and effective government
provided motivation for ocean exploration What is the Papacy? the office held by the Pope in the Catholic Church Classes of Medieval Society: clergy, warrior, and worker
(limited or no social mobility)
Clergy- dealt with according to church law and was not in secular courts
Nobles- Emphasized chivalry; made knights pledge to order, piety, and Christianity
Aristocratic Women- embraced chivalry (refined behavior)
Troubadours- poets, minstrels, entertainers Eleanor of Aquitaine one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in England
In her lifetime:
Duchess of Aquitaine and Countess of Poitiers
queen consort (King's wife) of France and England
Encouraged good manners, refinement, and romantic love Settled Tula (in central Mexico) in the 8th century
crops: maize, beans, peppers, tomatoes, chiles, and cotton
Tula's peak population: 60,000
Trade and Commerce:
center of pottery and weaving
imported turquoise, jade, animal skins, etc. from Mesoamerica
By 1775: Problems between different ethnic groups and nomadic tribes destroyed the states. Empire based on military conquest established in central Mexico.
Capital: Tenochtitlan, built in 1345 on island in Texcoco lake
Food: fish, beans, squash, maize, tomatoes, peppers, chiles
Chinampas: farming system in which mud was taken from lake floor into small plots of land floating in lake
Expansion attempts led to alliances The Cannibal Kingdom large amount of human sacrifice
dispute on whether or not there was actual cannibalism
some believe flesh of victims was a reward, as the Aztec diet had little protein Gods:
Tezcatlipoca "The Smoking Mirror"- giver and taker of life
Quetzalcoatl "The Feathered Serpent"- supported crafts and agriculture
Huitzilopochtli- war god
Gods made the world work through personal sacrifice. Practice of sacrificial bloodletting. Sacrificed humans to war god.
Built a temple to Huitzilopochtli in the center of Tenochtitlan. Military conquest based empire established in what is now Peru, around Lake Titicaca in the Mid-1200s.
Pachacuti expanded empire, with it spanning from Quito to Santiago. (2,500 miles)
Government led by military elite.
Army made of conquered people.
Quipu- different colored cords used to keep track of population, taxes, state property, and owed labor
Cuzxo- capital, center for administration, religion, and ceremonies
Two roads running north to south- one through the mountains and one along the coast- were used for trade and spreading of information. primary state of west Africa, 750-1250
became important due to trans-Saharan trade
controlled gold trade and taxation; traded slaves and ivory
traded gold for horses, cloth, manufactured goods, and salt
Islam came to Ghana by trade routes Mali benefited from trade more than Ghana.
Controlled and taxed almost all trade in west Africa.
Connected to north Africa with huge caravans.
Cities: Niani (capital), Timbuktu, Gao, and Jenne Islam in Mali:
Rulers honored Islam
King Mansa Musa made a pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324; brought with him a huge caravan of soldiers, slaves, subjects and camels carrying gold
Mansa Musa built a capital at Timbuktu and built Islamic mosques in Mali.
He sent his subjects to study under Muslim scholars and established religious schools. Bantus:
brought agriculture, cattle herding, and iron to eastern coast of Africa
developed complex societies governed by local states
controlled eastern coast of Africa from Mogadishu to Kilwa and the Comoro Islands and Sofala
spoke Swahili- Bantu language mixed with Arabic
The eastern coast attracted Islamic merchants who brought items from India, China, and Persia. They exchanged things like pottery, glass, and textiles for local resources like leopard skins and turquoise shells.
Important trade cities: Mogadishu, Kilwa, Sofala, Mozambique, Lamu, Malindi, and Mombasa Many were monotheistic:
one divine male force who controlled the world
gods and spirits associated with the sun, rain, wind, and nature
Belief that the souls of ancestors could intervene in a person's life.
Rituals- prayers, animal sacrifices, ceremonies marking birth, marriage, and death
Religious specialists- believed to mediate between the spirit world and humans; were consulted in times of despair and prescribed remedies (sacrifice, medicine) Use of camels sped up travel and trade; caravans of camels crossed the Sahara in 70-90 days.
Connected Mediterranean basin to sub-Saharan Africa: Ghana, Mali, and Songhai
Islam established by Arab conquerors in the 7th and 8th centuries
Islamic merchants were an important part of Trans-Saharan trade. They spread the Dar al-Islam in Africa.
gold, slaves, and ivory, from the south
horses, cloth, salt, and manufactured goods from the north Established by Osman from the declining Byzantine Empire in 1299. His followers were known as Osmanlis, or Ottomans.
Created multinational, centralized bureaucracy in the Middle East.
Spread to the Balkan Peninsula after defeating Tamerlane in 1402.
By 1480: Ottomans controlled the rest of the Byzantine Empire, Greece, and the Balkan region "Universal Ruler" Temijun, a Mongol warrior, allied all Mongol tribes under a single confederation by showing bravery in battle in 1206 and was proclaimed Ghengis Khan.
He broke up the tribes and forced men to join military with no tribal divisions. He gave men high military titles based on skill and loyalty
Built a capital at Karakorum and created a strong army based on chivalry.
United central Asia; made attacks on Tibet and northern China Mongols and western Europe had a common enemy: Muslims; Crusaders tried to take Jerusalem back from the Muslims, Mongols attack the Abbasid Dynasty
Pope Innocent IV sent missionaries to convert Mongol Khans but failed.
They were welcomed by the Mongols and the diplomacy renewed trade between East Asia and Europe along the Silk Road.
This created what is known as Mongol Peace, or Pax Mongolica. Kublai Khan (son of Ghengis) brought together Mongol rule in China
Expeditions and Conquests:
Failed to conquer Japan, Java, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Burma
Golden Horde overran Russia and explored Poland, Hungary, and Germany
Hulegu (Kublai's brother) conquered to Abbasid Empre in Persia and attempted to take Syria but failed.
Established the Yuan dynasty in China in 1279 Soon after Kublai's death, the Yuan dynasty declined due to financial problems and insufficient governmental knowledge.
The government tried to save itself by introducing paper money but merchants would not take it.
The last of the Mongol rulers died in 1335 with no heir to take control.
Bubonic Plague resulted in loss of populations and lack of labor.
The Golden Horde controlled the Mongol in the Caucasus and the Crimean Peninsula until the late 15th century. Emperor Hongwu established the Ming Dynasty in 1368. He wished to destroy all signs of Mongol rule.
central power and direct rule by the emperor
civil service system based on Confucian values
Enuchs (men who could not produce a family to challenge the dynasty) and Mandarins (men sent out to enforce government policies) were used to maintain central power
Society based on strict obedience of the rules of the Ming government
irrigation systems rebuilt which led to thriving agriculture
production of manufactured goods- silk, porcelain, and cotton
demand for payment from surrounding states Islamic admiral, led 7 exploratory voyages for Ming China from 1405 to 1433, controlling a huge navy
traveled to Southeast Asia, Ceylon, India, Arabia, and East Africa establishing relationships
brought porcelain from china and animals from Africa (the animals went into the Ming zoo)
Rulers pulled Zheng He's funds because they no longer trusted him. They destroyed his nautical charts and let the ships fall apart.
He's voyages showed how China could be a power in the Indian Ocean. Delicate, yet durable ceramic made of clay
Likely produced in Han period, but production was mastered during the Tang dynasty.
Was a high demand luxury product in the Islamic world
The Tang were the world's only producer and seller
The blue and white style was developed during the Ming dynasty Woodblock printing:
Invented during the Tang period
reverse image was carved on a block of wood to create an entire printed page Moveable Type:
developed during the Song period
used cast bronze tiles with a single character
made printing cheaper and books more accessible used during the Tang dynasty as an explosive in the building of irrigation systems and canals
the Song used metal barrels to fire projectiles, an early version of the canon
Canons were used in Europe by the early 1300s
Mongols spread gunpowder technology to
Persia and southwest Asia Ships built in China during the Song Dynasty
used magnetic compass and stern-mounted rudder and were equipped with gunpowder rockets
Zheng He commanded a fleet of nine junks, along with other ships, during his expeditions Santa Maria Junks Ship Size Crew Size 90ft x 30ft 90 400ft x 150ft 27,000 Education Basic education was given occasionally to the wealthy and their children.
Foundations from the Bible
works by St. Augustine, St. Jerome, Plato, and Aristotle
Schools in Cathedrals in Bologna and Paris attracted people across Europe. These Cathedrals later became universities.
Schools began giving teaching degrees. Dominicans:
"beggars"- begged for food as they preached to villages
tried to bring those who had different opinions of religion (heretics) back to the church
led a modest and simple life
claimed Catholic clergy were corrupt
believed all members of the church had a right to preach
gave up wealth and marriage and became vegetarians
preached that material possessions were evil
believed that the world was a large battle between good and evil
saw the church as corrupt
Pope Innocent III called for a crusade to destroy the Cathars. A manor was a large estate consisting of fields, forests, domestic animals, lakes, rivers, and the workers bound to the land.
European manors were communities with their own bakeries, mills, breweries, markets, etc. Serfs provided most of the tools, leather goods, textiles and utensils needed.
The lord of the manor established government, police services, and justice Medieval Manor Colonial Plantation At the end of the Carolingian Empire, local authorities extended their power. Otto of Saxony, one of these authorities, made himself king in northern Germany and invaded Italy in the name of the church. For reestablishing Christian authority in the region, Pope John XII declared him the Holy Roman Emperor in 962.
The empire included Germany and at times eastern Europe and Italy.
There was a power struggle between the pope and non-religious leaders.
Pope Gregory VII ended emperor's rights to select church officials. Henry IV of Germany challenged this. Henry was suspended from the church, leading to a rebellion of German princes. This rebellion led to Henry's reinstatement. Italian explorer who traveled to China during Mongol times.
His father and uncle were some of the first European
merchants to visit China. They introduced Polo to Kublai
Kahn. Kublai liked Polo so he went on several diplomatic trips.
Polo explored remote parts of China by land and, returning, went to Sumatra, Arabia, India, and Ceylon by sea.
Polo was taken prisoner during a war between Venice and Genoa. One of his fellow prisoners, a writer, wrote down Polo's travels along the Silk Roads into texts that quickly circulated Europe. These stories inspired other explorers to find a route to the East. The term Crusades refers mainly to five holy wars declared by Pope Urban II in 1905. These wars were against the Muslims in an effort to reclaim Palestine and Jerusalem.
Religious/military orders were formed:
Templars- the most skilled knights
Teutonic Knights- fighters
When the pope declared a crusade, the warriors would fight on behalf of their faith. Peter the Hermit Traveled through Germany,
France, and the Low Countries
gaining support for the
Crusades. He rallied an
untrained group of poor
knights and peasants who were
eager to help. They failed to regain the Holy Land, but they gained much support for the cause. Cultural diffusion:
Europe reintroduced to Greco-Roman culture
discovered eastern goods (silk, glass, coffee, and rice)
High Middle Ages began:
demand for "new" goods increased
People moved off of manors to towns
Kings' power increased
Byzantine Empire, feudal nobles, and the church were weakened
European technology improved When Clovis converted, the Christian base of the Frankish Empire solidified.
Italy, as well as Charlemagne, worked to spread the religion north.
By 1000, Christianity was accepted in most of western Europe.
The pope, the single most important figure, provided the church with direction.
Pope Gregory I protected Rome and the church by installing forces of defense. He reestablished the power of the Pope and increased the importance of church in people's lives. After the feudal period, new nations with central authority emerged in France, Italy, Spain, and England. The process began in Italy as a result of papal influence.
Two components of state-building: Taxes and a large military
After the Hundred Years War, France and England formed armies and collected taxes.
Spain's state-building began when two independent regions were united by the marrying of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile. Trade network that developed in the Baltic and North Sea (1400s-1600s); included centers in Poland, Germany, and Scandinavia
Traded grain, fish, furs, and timbers
The introduction of credit led to more large-scale trade.
Commercial partnerships increased trade in Europe.
European social mobility became possible. "Rebirth" of Greco-Roman culture (1300s-1500s) Humanism:
focus on things of the world
leaving medieval thought
worked with urban-based society
focus on morals, literature, and history
Promoted individualism and encouraged less religious-based thought
Donatello and Michelangelo studied the human form for their artwork.
Architecture mimicked Greco-Roman styles with the introduction of the dome. When regional states were established to protect Europe, Vikings looked to colonize elsewhere.
Eric the Red, Scandinavian, set up colonies in Greenland in the 9th and 10th centuries. About 1000, Leif Ericsson established a Scandinavian colony in Newfoundland. He called it Vinland.
Vinland had plentiful supplies of timber and fish, but ultimately no other resources. It was only occupied for several decades. Most inhabitants left or died there due to lack of resources. Brooke Wilbanks