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Seven Waves of Filipino/a American Immigration
Transcript of Seven Waves of Filipino/a American Immigration
Filipinos are forced to work on trade ships that traveled between Mexico and the Philippines. They jump ship to escape the brutal treatment of their Spanish masters, and escape into the bayous and marshes of Louisiana. Here, they build their own villages, with houses on stilts, and learn to fish and dry shrimp. They are some of the first Asian immigrants to settle on American soil.
1st Wave 1898-1906: War, Imperialism, and the Pensionadas/os
More than one million Filipinas/os are killed during the Philippine-American War. Some Filipinas/os, especially those in urban areas, accept American occupation, and some elites even send their children to American universities through the pensionado program. Some Filipinas/os, especially nationalists in the rural areas, continue to fight American occupation and colonization. Many American teachers tell their Filipina/o students that America is the greatest country on earth, inspiring them to travel to the United States, Rural poverty increases, forcing many to leave the Philippines.
2nd Wave 1906-1934: The Pinoy and Pinay Pioneers: Sakadas, Students, Workers, and Adventurers
Filipinas/os are recuited by Hawaiian sugar planters to work under a three year contract. Recruiters make sure to find Filipinas/os who could work long hours and are illiterate, so that they could not read their contracts or strike. These Filipinas/os call themselves sakadas. The work in plantation camps is brutal and backbreaking, as they stoop over to cut sugar cane all day long. The sakadas are sometimes beaten. Regarded as inferior to other racial groups (e.g. Japanese laborers), they experience economic oppression, prejudice, and labor exploitation. Many of the sakadas had left behind families in the Philippines and their goal was to work hard, save money, and return as quickly as possible to their families in the Philippines. Only about half of these workers return to the Philippines.
3rd Wave 1934-1946: The Exclusion Period, War, and the Second Generation
A group of 30 Filipinos arrive in San Francisco on May 4, 1934, three days after the Tydings-McDuffie Act is passed. They are considered “aliens” and are detained at Angel Island. They are released on appeal but told to report back to the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) or face deportation. They decide to hide, and the INS searches for these Pinoys and Pinays. These immigrants elude the INS, staying with their relatives and families, and their second-generation children in Stockton, Salinas, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. World War II begins and these immigrants are able to become naturalized citizens by joining the First and Second Filipino Infantry Regiment.
4th Wave 1946-1965: Post War Changes and Navy Families
A young, college educated Pinay immigrates to the United States after having married a Filipino American soldier, and they settle in Stockton. She does not know other Pinays or Pinoys in the United States and the transition is difficult for her. She was a teacher in the Philippines but no one will hire her in America, so she works at a cannery. She is Visayan and her husband is Ilocano, so they have to speak in English in order to understand each other. However, her two cousins join the U.S. Navy and are stationed near her. They bring their wives. They all buy homes and have weekend parties together as their families grow. Filipino asparagus farm workers go on strike and the families must support their cousins and uncles who are on strike in the fields for better wages.
5th Wave 1965-1986: Post-1965 Immigrants
Many more families begin to immigrate to the United States. Some of these men and women are professional doctors, nurses, and engineers. These families begin to form communities and community organizations in the U.S.. But some of these educated professionals find that they are overqualified for the jobs they can obtain. Some surgeons and doctors are forced to work as nurses’ assistants; some engineers now work as janitors.
6th Wave 1986-Present: Filipinos in the Diaspora
A Pinay leaves her family to work as a domestic worker for a family in Los Angeles. She takes care of three children so that she can send money back to her own family in the Philippines. She works long hours and on weekends. Her own children in the Philippines are grateful for the money that she sends to support them, but they miss her.
A young Pinay gets her nursing degree and then immigrates to the U.S. and settles in New York City. Here she finds many other Pinays employed at the hospital. Many of them, like her, have had to leave their families behind, but they are hopeful that they will be able to start new families in the U.S. and to provide better opportunities for their own children.
7th Wave Key Terms Colonization
Morro Bay Context
It is said that thousands of Filipinos (ages 16 to 60) were involved in the Galleon Trade. 6,000 to 8,000 Filipinos were employed in woodcutting and wood gathering for the building of these ships.
Families would suffer because of the focus on building galleons rather than allowing Filipinos to provide food for their families. Agricultural labor was often neglected.
Heat, fatigue, long hours, caused many to die in building the ships.
Crouchett, Lorraine Jacobs. Filipinos in California: From the Days of the Galleons to the Present. El Cerrito: Downey Place Publishing House, Inc., 1982. White: Spanish
Blue: Portuguese Galleon Trade Routes (above) Lousiana Manilatown (left)
Key Terms Pensionados
White Man's Burden
Context Under the Treaty of Paris, Spain sold Philippines along with Cuba, Peurto Rico and Guam to America.
Spain and America participated in a mock war to make it appear as if America is the savior of the Philippines. Before the military aid of America, the Philippines was already on the verge of gaining independance.
America forcibly occupied the Philippines, thus declaring Filipinos as American nationals.
The institutionalizing of schools in the Philippines help promote a superior and wealthy image of America.
Mickinley's Statement to Colonize the Philippines:
"When next I realized that the Philippines had dropped into our laps, I confess I did not know what to do with them. I sought counsel from all sides-Democrats as well as Republicans-but got little help. I thought first we would take only Manila; then Luzon; then other islands, perhaps, also.
I walked the floor of the White House night after night until midnight; and I am not ashamed to tell you, gentlemen, that I went down on my knees and prayed to Almighty God for light and guidance more than one night. And one night late it came to me this way-I don't know how it was, but it came:
(1) That we could not give them back to Spain-that would be cowardly and dishonorable;
(2) That we could not turn them over to France or Germany, our commercial rivals in the Orient-that would be bad business and discreditable;
(3) That we could not leave them to themselves-they were unfit for self¬government, and they would soon have anarchy and misrule worse then Spain's was; and
(4) That there was nothing left for us to do but to take them all, and to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them and by God's grace do the very best we could by them, as our fellow men for whom Christ also died.
And then I went to bed and went to sleep, and slept soundly, and the next morning I sent for the chief engineer of the War Department (our map-maker), and I told him to put the Philippines on the map of the United States (pointing to a large map on the wall of his office), and there they are and there they will stay while I am President!"
Key Terms Many Filipinos, especially from the Ilocos and Visayan regions, immigrated to Hawaii to work on sugar plantations.
Filipinos also immigrated to California to work in the fields.
The farm workers in California traveled north to Alaska to work in canneries during the summers in order to have work during the off-season of field work.
Sakadas in Hawaii and farm workers in California faced racism, and exploitative working and living conditions.
Filipinos faced violence often being blamed for taking low-paid jobs, “stealing” white women.
Workers in both regions began organizing to fight for better working and living conditions for their communities.
Impact Impact Despite the mass migration of Filipino men in the past, More Filipinas were able to migrated under these preferences.
From 1965 to 2000, Filipinos in America rose from 2,000 to 2,364,815.
Despite obtaining college degrees and professional certifications in the Philippines, many Filipinos experienced occupational downgrade. Those who were once nurses in the Philippines would be demoted to nurse aids or assitants.
Key Terms Family Reunification
Civil Rights Movement
Nonquota: spouses, unmarried minor children, parents of U.S. citizens.
1. Unmarried children over 21
2. Spouses and unmarried children of permanent residents
3. Professionals, scientists and artists of exceptional ability (IMMACT 1990)
4. Married children over 21
5. Siblings and their spouses and children of US citizens
6. Workers in occupations with labor shortages (IMMACT 1990)
7. Political refugees (Eliminated in 1980)
As the largest export of the Philippines, overseas contract workers send over 16 billion dollars in remmitances every year.
Because of their status as immigrants, Filipino/a migrant workers are often subject to harsh working conditions.
The mass migration of Overseas Filipino Workers (OFW) often creates difficulties for families.
http://www.nscb.gov.ph/ncs/9thncs/papers/labor_Trend.pdf Impact Spain colonized the Philippines as military and religion being their primary means.
Philippines was abudant in resources including timber which is ideal for building galleons.
Trade from other parts of the world became top priority of Spain. Impact As nationals, Filipinos were able to migrate to America mainly as pensionados.
Under the Pensionado Act of 1903, Filipinos from the elite class in the Philippines were allowed to study in America with the intention to return to Philippines to occupy high positions in many institutions.
Those that stayed in America ended working as "low skilled" labor. The Great Depression pushed employers to seek cheap employment overseas.
As a result of xenophobia, Filipinos were viewed as a threat both sexually and in the job market.
It was widely believed that Filipinos were ideal for farm labor because of their typically short stature.
Context As the result of the civil rights movement, the Immigration Act of 1965 was passed.
The act functioned to reunite families and recruit "skilled" labor from other countries.
Immigrants migrated under seven perferences. Context As the result of imperialism and neo-colonialism, Filipinos in the Philippines are left with little to no opportunities to work in the Philippines.
Certain policies on immigration that are dictated by labor demands in various countries that influence the career choices available to Filipinos. Impact Context Key Terms Capitalism
Immigration Act of 1965
Overseas Contract Workers PUSH and PULL Reasons why people leave Reasons why people go to a particular place If You Want to Know What We Are
by Carlos Bulosan
If you want to know what we are who inhabit
forest mountain rivershore, who harness
beast, living steel, martial music (that classless
language of the heart), who celebrate labour,
wisdom of the mind, peace of the blood;
If you want to know what we are who become
animate at the rain’s metallic ring, the stone’s
accumulated strength, who tremble in the wind’s
blossoming (that enervates earth’s potentialities),
who stir just as flowers unfold to the sun;
If you want to know what we are who grow
powerful and deathless in countless counterparts,
each part pregnant with hope, each hope supreme,
each supremacy classless, each classlessness
nourished by unlimited splendor of comradeship;
We are multitudes the world over, millions everywhere;
in violent factories, sordid tenements, crowded cities;
in skies and seas and rivers, in lands everywhere;
our number increase as the wide world revolves
and increases arrogance, hunger disease and death.
We are the men and women reading books, searching
in the pages of history for the lost word, the key
to the mystery of living peace, imperishable joy;
we are factory hands field hands mill hand everywhere,
molding creating building structures, forging ahead,
Reaching for the future, nourished in the heart;
we are doctors scientists chemists discovering,
eliminating disease and hunger and antagonisms;
we are soldiers navy-men citizens guarding
the imperishable will of man to live in grandeur,
We are the living dream of dead men everywhere,
the unquenchable truth that class-memories create
to stagger the infamous world with prophecies
of unlimited happiness_a deathless humanity;
we are the living and the dead men everywhere….
If you want to know what we are, observe
the bloody club smashing heads, the bayonet
penetrating hallowed breasts, giving no mercy; watch the
bullet crashing upon armorless citizens;
look at the tear-gas choking the weakened lung.
If you want to know what we are, see the lynch
trees blossoming, the hysterical mob rioting;
remember the prisoner beaten by detectives to confess
a crime he did not commit because he was honest,
and who stood alone before a rabid jury of ten men,
And who was sentenced to hang by a judge
whose bourgeois arrogance betrayed the office
he claimed his own; name the marked man,
the violator of secrets; observe the banker,
the gangster, the mobsters who kill and go free;
We are the sufferers who suffer for natural love
of man for man, who commemorate the humanities
of every man; we are the toilers who toil
to make the starved earth a place of abundance
who transform abundance into deathless fragrance.
We are the desires of anonymous men everywhere,
who impregnate the wide earth’s lustrous wealth
with a gleaming fluorescence; we are the new thoughts
and the new foundations, the new verdure of the mind;
we are the new hope new joy life everywhere.
We are the vision and the star, the quietus of pain;
we are the terminals of inquisition, the hiatuses
of a new crusade; we are the subterranean subways
of suffering; we are the will of dignities;
we are the living testament of a flowering race.
If you want to know what we are
WE ARE REVOLUTION! World War 2
From the American side, the Great Depression also contributed to pushing for Philippine independence.
Japan occupies the Philippines.
The need for soldiers meant the recruitment of Filipinos to fight the Japanese.
Japan attacked the Philippines 10 hours after it attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941. When the United States surrendered the Philippines to Japan, about 75,000 soldiers and U.S. soldiers were led in the Bataan Death March for 60 miles .
Context Impact In 1934 the Tydings-McDuffie Act proclaimed that the Philippines could get independence in 10 years. It also changed the status of Filipinos in America as nationals to aliens and limited Filipino immigration to 50 per year.
An Executive Order was signed on July 26, 1941, drawing over 200,000 Filipino soldiers in the Philippine Army into USAFFE (United State Army Forces in the Far East).
After U.S. and Filipino forces, including the Philippine force Hukbalahap (anti-Japanese forces), defeated Japan, the Philippines was granted independence as planned.
However, they entered into a Philippine Trade Act with the United States as a stipulation for getting war rehabilitation grants, and also entered in a 99-year lease which allowed for 22 U.S. military bases beginning in 1947 under the U.S. Military Bases Agreement.
American media's portrayal of Filipinos started to become positive while the portrayal of Japanese became negative. Key Terms
Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934
Bataan Death March
U.S Military Bases Agreement of 1947
World War II ends in 1945.
In1946 Filipino immigrants were abled to become naturalized citizens and the Filipino quota was adjusted to 100 immigrants annually. under the Luce-Cellar Act.
Anti-miscegenation laws were lifted in 1948, which meant that Filipinos were not longer legally prevented from marrying whites. Context Impact The Recission Act of 1946 deprived Filipino Veterans, who fought under the U.S. Flag during WW II, any rights as other veterans.
The 1946 War Brides Act allowed Filipino soldiers to bring their wives and children to the United States.
It contributed to Baby Boom & Petitioning of family members.
By being granted of citizenship, they were able to own homes and land, vote, and have increase involvement in politics. Key Terms Veteranos
Recission Act 1946
War Brides Act of 1946