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Behavioral Frame of Reference
Transcript of Behavioral Frame of Reference
Applied Behavioral Frames
Behavioral Cognitive Continuum, Client Applications
Behavior that can be o
Rules out unconscious motivation
opposed to psychoanalytic
Learning and behavior modification
Includes perception & cognition
Roots of Behaviorism
Pavlov – classical conditioning
Skinner – operant conditioning
Applied scientific method to human behavior
Foundation for learning theory
Began 1930s & 1940s
Behavioral Frame of Reference
Reference: Cole & Tufano, Chapter 12
approach that replaces
behaviors with more
through positive or negative reinforcement and many other strategies.
Used for what?
of problems in both adults and children
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Generalized anxiety disorder
Separation anxiety disorder
Increase desired behaviors in any individual regardless of functional level
Self-management, self-regulation/ CB
: goals & objectives, training, shaping, chaining, modeling, external reinforcement, rehearsal & practice, role playing, systematic desensitization, biofeedback
assertiveness training, social skills training, graded tasks, relaxation, time management, stress management
Behavior Modification, Concepts & Techniques
Classical conditioning (Pavlov)
Involves the pairing of stimuli and the association that results between the two.A behavior that would normally be the result of one stimulus
result of the other
also due to the association created
Pavlov's dogs salivating at the sound of the bell they'd come to associate with being fed is an example.
Operant Conditioning (Skinner)
Describe the effects of the
of a particular behavior on the future occurrence of that behavior
r that is
reinforced in the environment tends to be repeated
requires that the subject perform some action (and that the action is either rewarded or punished to either encourage or discourage the behavior)
You must act
types of Operant Conditioning:
Positive and Negative Reinforcemen
behavior while both
Punishment and Extinction
certain behaviors through a system of
In behavior therapy, it is common for the therapist to reward the client so he can keep the behavior
Patting the back, passing a smile or sometimes giving a chocolate, verbal praise
A particular behavior is strengthened by the consequence of the
A negative reinforce is an event or behavior whose reinforcing properties are associated with its removal.
Your behavior of leaving home earlier after you try it for one day is strengthened by the consequence of the avoidance of heavy traffic
Punishment is the application of an aversive or
stimulus in reaction to a particular behavior.
weakens a behavior because a negative condition is introduced or experienced as a consequence of the behavior
For children, this could be the removal of television privileges when they disobey their parents or teacher.
Extinction eliminates the incentive for unwanted behavior by withholding the expected response.
Ignoring the behavior
Shaping & Chaining
Uses principle of
conditioning to learn new behaviors
Breaks down task/activity into
as it is performed successfully or approximations appear (shaping)
serves as stimulus for next step (chaining).
In forward chaining
you start with the
task in the chain (A). Once the child can
that element satisfactorily, you have him
elements (A & B) and reinforce this effort.
Do not teach “A”, then teach “B” separately
“A” and “B” are taught together. When these are mastered, you can move to “A”, “B” and “C”.
Notice they are not taught in isolation; hence the term ‘chain’.
I would be reinforcing each step as I am teaching it, but once my son learns step 4, I will only reinforce steps 3 & 4 together (next link in the chain).
Teach a child to complete a 4-piece puzzle
To backward chain this task, I would follow steps one through 3 myself, presenting the task as completed except for the last piece. Then, I would (using whatever prompt level necessary) teach the child to put in the 4th piece (step 4). When he can successfully do this a number of times, I will teach step 3 & 4 (completing steps 1 through 2 myself beforehand)
Change and Motivation
Once a behavior becomes
is no longer necessary
If reinforced every single time he does something good, eventually the reinforcement
loses its power
Initially reinforce what you want with consistency, then as they start to respond, change your schedule of reinforcement to every third time they do what you want
Extinguishing Unwanted behaviors
Withdrawal of reinforcement
Remove trigger and cues
with which our acts are
. (James, 1985)
Familiar objects in the environment serve as stimuli for the habitual performance of tasks.
Rehearsal & Practice
of all learning
Used in approaches on the continuum
Reinforcement needed when motivation is
Function and Disability
Function: Acquisition of adaptive behaviors
Behavioral goals and objectives
Specific accomplishments that can observed and measured
In your notebook write one lifetime goal for yourself in each of the following categories:
Should be observable
Should imply way to measure
Outcome criteria: to measure or confirm accomplishments
Behavioral goals and objective:
One of most fundamental contribution of behaviorism
Goal set by client and therapist together
until goals are broken down, they will remain only dreams
Stress management questionnaire
Guidelines for Intervention
Shaping, chaining, extinction, rehearsal of specific behavior
"learning can't occur in the absence of some kind of reinforcement"
Behavior Modification: all
Biomechanical, Rehabilitative: physical disabilities
Cognitive Perceptual: brain injury (TBI), Stroke (CVA), mental illness, drug/alcohol rehab.
Cognitive Behavioral: all mental illness except psychosis, emotional aspects of any disorder, prevention
Done by :
, Hanin Otaiby