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Behavioral Frame of Reference

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shatha ahmad

on 20 November 2016

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Transcript of Behavioral Frame of Reference

Behavioral cognitive continuum
Applied Behavioral Frames
Behavioral Cognitive Continuum, Client Applications
Behavior that can be o
bserved
and
measured
Rules out unconscious motivation
Directly
opposed to psychoanalytic
theory
Learning and behavior modification
Includes perception & cognition
Roots of Behaviorism
Pavlov – classical conditioning
Skinner – operant conditioning
Applied scientific method to human behavior
Foundation for learning theory
Began 1930s & 1940s
Behavioral Frame of Reference
Reference: Cole & Tufano, Chapter 12

Behavior Modification
is a
treatment

approach that replaces
undesirable
behaviors with more
desirable ones
through positive or negative reinforcement and many other strategies.
Used for what?
used to
treat
a variety
of problems in both adults and children

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Phobias
Generalized anxiety disorder
Separation anxiety disorder
Increase desired behaviors in any individual regardless of functional level
Now
:
Self-management, self-regulation/ CB

Includes
: goals & objectives, training, shaping, chaining, modeling, external reinforcement, rehearsal & practice, role playing, systematic desensitization, biofeedback

OT examples
:
assertiveness training, social skills training, graded tasks, relaxation, time management, stress management
Focus ..
Behavior Modification, Concepts & Techniques
Classical conditioning (Pavlov)
Involves the pairing of stimuli and the association that results between the two.A behavior that would normally be the result of one stimulus
becomes the

result of the other
also due to the association created

Pavlov's dogs salivating at the sound of the bell they'd come to associate with being fed is an example.

Involuntary
Operant Conditioning (Skinner)
Describe the effects of the
consequences
of a particular behavior on the future occurrence of that behavior
Behavio
r that is
reinforced in the environment tends to be repeated
requires that the subject perform some action (and that the action is either rewarded or punished to either encourage or discourage the behavior)
You must act
voluntarily
with O.C.
types of Operant Conditioning:
Both
Positive and Negative Reinforcemen
t
strengthen
behavior while both
Punishment and Extinction
weaken
behavior

Positive Reinforcement
Positive reinforcement
encourages
certain behaviors through a system of
rewards
.

In behavior therapy, it is common for the therapist to reward the client so he can keep the behavior
Patting the back, passing a smile or sometimes giving a chocolate, verbal praise
Negative Reinforcement
A particular behavior is strengthened by the consequence of the
stopping
or
avoiding
of a
negative condition.

A negative reinforce is an event or behavior whose reinforcing properties are associated with its removal.

For example
Your behavior of leaving home earlier after you try it for one day is strengthened by the consequence of the avoidance of heavy traffic
Punishment
Punishment is the application of an aversive or
unpleasant
stimulus in reaction to a particular behavior.
weakens a behavior because a negative condition is introduced or experienced as a consequence of the behavior

For children, this could be the removal of television privileges when they disobey their parents or teacher.
Extinction
The
removal
of reinforcement

Extinction eliminates the incentive for unwanted behavior by withholding the expected response.

Indifference

Ignoring the behavior
Shaping & Chaining
Uses principle of
operant
conditioning to learn new behaviors
Breaks down task/activity into
sequence
of steps
Reinforces each
step
as it is performed successfully or approximations appear (shaping)
Each
step
serves as stimulus for next step (chaining).
Forward Chaining
In forward chaining
you start with the
first
task in the chain (A).  Once the child can
perform
that element satisfactorily, you have him
perforsecond
elements (A & B) and reinforce this effort.
Do not teach “A”, then teach “B” separately
“A” and “B” are taught together.  When these are mastered, you can move to “A”, “B” and “C”. 
Notice they are not taught in isolation; hence the term ‘chain’.
Backward Chaining
I would be reinforcing each step as I am teaching it, but once my son learns step 4, I will only reinforce steps 3 & 4 together (next link in the chain).

Example:
Teach a child to complete a 4-piece puzzle
To backward chain this task, I would follow steps one through 3 myself, presenting the task as completed except for the last piece.  Then, I would (using whatever prompt level necessary) teach the child to put in the 4th piece (step 4).  When he can successfully do this a number of times, I will teach step 3 & 4 (completing steps 1 through 2 myself beforehand)
Change and Motivation
REINFORCEMENT
Once a behavior becomes
habitual
,
r
einforcement
is no longer necessary

If reinforced every single time he does something good, eventually the reinforcement
loses its power

Initially reinforce what you want with consistency, then as they start to respond, change your schedule of reinforcement to every third time they do what you want
Extinguishing Unwanted behaviors

Behavior modification

Withdrawal of reinforcement

Remove trigger and cues

Habit
diminishes
the
conscious

attention
with which our acts are
performed
. (James, 1985)
Familiar objects in the environment serve as stimuli for the habitual performance of tasks.
Example: smoking
Rehearsal & Practice
Basis
of all learning
Used in approaches on the continuum
Reinforcement needed when motivation is
lacking
Function and Disability
Function: Acquisition of adaptive behaviors

Behavioral goals and objectives
Behavioral Goals
Specific accomplishments that can observed and measured
In your notebook write one lifetime goal for yourself in each of the following categories:
Professional
Family
Financial
Spiritual
Behavioral Objectives
Short term
steps
toward
a
longer term
goal
Should be observable
Should imply way to measure
Time frame
Outcome criteria: to measure or confirm accomplishments
Page 146
Behavioral goals and objective:

One of most fundamental contribution of behaviorism

Goal set by client and therapist together

until goals are broken down, they will remain only dreams
Evaluation
Observational assessment
Stress management questionnaire
Guidelines for Intervention
Shaping, chaining, extinction, rehearsal of specific behavior
Teaching skills
Behavior contrasts
Relaxation training
Systematic desensitization
"learning can't occur in the absence of some kind of reinforcement"

B.F.Skinner
behavioral

Biomechanical,
Rehabilitative
Cognitive-Perceptual
Rehabilitative

Cognitive Behavioral

Behavior Modification: all

Biomechanical, Rehabilitative: physical disabilities

Cognitive Perceptual: brain injury (TBI), Stroke (CVA), mental illness, drug/alcohol rehab.

Cognitive Behavioral: all mental illness except psychosis, emotional aspects of any disorder, prevention
Done by :
maha alsaoudi
, Hanin Otaiby
Waed Alobaidat
shatha ahmed
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