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Transcript of Anthrax
What is Anthrax?
Anthrax is a disease that is caused by a type of germ called Bacillus Anthracis.
95% of anthrax infections occur in the skin
Inhalation is known to be a deadly form of anthrax
How is it Contracted?
Humans and animals can ingest anthrax from carcasses of dead animals that have been contaminated with anthrax.
Animals are often infected while grazing, especially when eating rough, irritant, or spiky vegetation: the vegetation has been hypothesized to cause wounds within the gastrointestinal tract permitting entry of the bacterial endo-spores into the tissues.
If the spores are inhaled, they migrate to the chest.
People who work in places such as wool mills, slaughterhouses, and tanneries may breathe in the spores when working with infected animals or contaminated animal products from infected animals.
By: Natalie Ortega, Nia Helaire, Reena Arevalo, Victor Hawkins
Symptoms: Cutaneous Anthrax
Boil-like pores and skin lesions that begin with pores and skin bumps and form ulcers with black, painless patches.
An uneasy feeling because of the toxin by the bacterium.
Ulcers start small, black patches on pores and skin (itchy and aggravating lesions).
Types of Anthrax
Vomiting of blood
Acute swelling in the intestinal tract
Severe Diarrhea, Bloody Diarrhea
Uneasy feeling due to toxin exerted because of the bacterium
Body Parts Affected:
Cutaneous Anthrax is not commonly fatal if treated properly
Flu-like and normal symptoms.
Problems related to your respiratory system will increase.
Within several days, the patients respiratory structure will collapse thoroughly.
The skin is infected
Most common place for anthrax to affect
This type of anthrax only occurs through cuts and abrasion
Includes a high fever, coughing and delirium, exhaustion, chest pains,critical respiratory problems, and perspiring.
Loss of life commonly takes place immediately a few days after onset of the indications.
Body Parts Affected
The lungs are infected by the same spores as the skin only that they are inhaled
When anthrax spores get into the skin, usually through a cut or scrape.
The bacteria comes into direct contact with skin that has a cut or a break in it.
This can happen when a person handles infected animals or contaminated animal products like wool, hides, or hair.
A newly discovered type of anthrax is injection anthrax.
Symptoms: Gastrointestinal Anthrax
Through the Skin
Loss of urge for food
Collapse of intestinal tract
Lesions in intestinal location and in mouth and throat
Body Part Affected is the gastrointestinal Tract
Only 10-15 percent of patients survive without any treatment
The gastrointestinal track
is infected by anthrax
There was a fatal release of nerve gas in the Tokyo in 1995 - the same terrorist group released anthrax throughout Tokyo on at least eight occasions.
No cases of the disease came to the attention of the health authorities as a result of any of these attacks.
During the 1990s, it was suggested that at least 17 nations had some biological weapons capacity.
Access to reasonably sophisticated biotechnology facilities would be required - as well as an original source of anthrax bacteria to begin the culturing process.
However, once made, anthrax spores can be stored for considerable periods of time.
History of Anthrax
The biblical fifth and sixth Egyptian plagues are consistent with anthrax.
Anthrax is intertwined with the origins of modern microbiology and immunology.
In 1876, Robert Koch, through his research in Wollstein, Germany, went on to empirically prove that the anthrax bacillus was the etiological agent of anthrax.
Anthrax was first discovered in 1877 By Robert Koch.
In 1881, Louis Pasteur successfully produced a vaccine to protect livestock against anthrax, the first effective live bacterial vaccine to be developed.
The world's largest recorded anthrax epidemic in humans occurred during the civil war in Zimbabwe (1979 to 1980). Over 9,400 cases (most of them cutaneous), including 182 fatalities, were reported in a two-year period. Anthrax had been endemic in Zimbabwe (formerly called Rhodesia) before the war.
The cutaneous anthrax death rate is 20 percent without antibiotic treatment and less than 1 percent with it.
Inhalation Anthrax Death Rate
There have not been enough cases of inhalation anthrax to know the specific anthrax death rate for this type of the disease. Although death rates for inhalation anthrax are based on incomplete information, the inhalation anthrax death rate is extremely high, approximately 75 percent, even with all possible supportive care and appropriate antibiotics.
Gastrointestinal Anthrax Death Rate
The gastrointestinal anthrax death rate is estimated to be 25 to 60 percent. The impact of early antibiotic treatment on the anthrax death rate is unknown.
Found when one consumes an infected piece of meat that is not property cooked or slaughtered
The disease has gained most of its attention from the use of biological warfare
Gastrointestinal anthrax outnumbers cutaneous anthrax in death rates
Approximately 100 people are infected each year with anthrax, and the death toll is very low
Number of People That Contract Anthax Each Year
How Do You Treat Anthrax?
Anthrax is treated with antibiotics or a vaccine that is prescribed by a medical doctor
If the condition of the person from the anthrax is serious they may have to be hospitalized
Antibiotics that is used to treat anthrax are
60 days are recommended for the treatment of anthrax
Animals that are at high risk of being infected with anthrax are cattle, sheep, and goats.
A anthrax vaccine are generally reserved for military personnel, scientist working with anthrax, or people handling animal products
Avoid contact with infected animals or animal products
Do not touch fluid draining from an anthrax wound
The spores germinate in 1 to 60 days, multiplying as they infect the chest tissue area