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Elizabethan Music & Art
Transcript of Elizabethan Music & Art
William Byrd, also known as the "Father of Music", lived from 1543-1623. Byrd was an incredible organist in the queens court and he even composed services and anthems for the English Church. Byrd was a favorite of Queen Elizabeth. One of Williams main anthems is, "Sing Joyfully." Byrd also composed instrumental music.
John Dowland was another music composer who lived from 1563-1623. Dowland was a lutenist and wrote lute music. One of his main music pieces was called, "The First Booke of Songes", and "Ayres of Foure Partes". Dowland's most popular song was, "Flow my Tears".
Orlando Gibbons was another famous music composer. Gibbons was a talented polyphonic composer. He mainly focused on church music. Gibbons was so talented, that he was rewarded with a doctrine of music from Oxford. His most famous work is, "The Silver Swan."
Background of Music
The Separation of Music
The Elizabethan times were a golden age for music. The music would simply be performed by musicians or it would be performed by the lower class to ease the burden of work. The music eventually separated, and formed into different groups. Examples of these groups are:
Musicians in the theaters would normally appear on the stage as actors or would play from a balcony. A group of instruments, or a consort, would usually consist of the same type of instrument. The consort would determine the type of show that would be put on. Such as, trumpets, which would be used in military themed plays. Some examples of the types of instruments that were used in these plays are:
Popularity of Dance
During the Elizabethan Era, Art and Music made a huge impact upon society because of the influential music composers, the types of music they composed for plays and the theater, and their styles of dance.
Popular Dancers Masters
Styles of Dance
Music was of great use during the Elizabethan Era. It was used for entertainment and the musical instruments provided unusual and creative music for plays and accompanying poems. Music was being taught in schools and Universities, and in the court of Queen Elizabeth, who was a patron of all the Arts. The music was reflected in the plays of William Shakespeare, who references music in his plays and poems.
Church Music- Songs of praising and hymns.
Court Music- Played in the court of the queen.
Street Music- Played at fairs and festivals.
Town Music- Played by musicians that were hired, and was played at town gatherings and ceremonies.
Theater music- Enhanced the emotion and mood of the theater and it's plays.
Viol: A stringed instrument and ancestor of the violin.
Lute: Like a guitar with 3-strings and flat body.
Recorder: A straight flute made from wood.
Fife: A flute. The player had to twist his head slightly for the mouth piece. Merchant of Venice “wry-necked fife”
Virginal: A tiny and older piano on which the strings were plucked by quills instead of being hit with small hammers.
Cittern: A String instrument with a flat base. Its plucked with a quail feather.
Dance was very popular and influential during the Elizabethan Era. Queen Elizabeth I impacted dance and influenced dance very much. She danced almost every day, and she wanted many other people to dance as well. Dance became popular and known in countries like Italy, Spain, and France. New styles of dance were created in those places and were spread throughout Europe. Dance was also very good for health and for entertainment, so many people decided to dance for those reasons. Dance became so popular, that people who danced would battle each other out with different types of dance to see who could do better.
Since dance had become so popular during the Elizabethan Era, there were many people who influenced the dance culture. These people were called "Dance Masters". These Dance Masters either were very talented dancers or did something that made a big impact on the dance culture. Some of these Dance Masters were:
Cesare Negri - an Italian dancer who was a popular choreographer and studied ballet.
Fabritio Caroso - an Italian Renaissance composer of dance
Thoinot Arbeau - a French studier of dance and a writer of dance books
The Upper Class and the Lower Class each had different styles of dance. Dancing required using instruments, and the Lower Class could not perform the same dances as the Upper Class could because they didn't have the instruments that the Upper Class had to perform them. Some of the dances performed by the Upper Class were:
The Pavane - a dance where people paraded around a hall lightly touching fingers
The Galliard - a lively dance which was sometimes followed by the Pavane
Ballet - a formal dance performed by professional dancers
Some dances performed by the Lower Class were:
Brand, Brawle, Branle - a dance performed during a celebration or gathering
The Hornpipe - a lively dance which was like a jig. Sailors danced this one quite a bit
Maypole Dance - a dance that the performers danced in a circle holding a colored ribbon