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Learning Theories and Models

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Michael Braden

on 11 March 2014

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Transcript of Learning Theories and Models

Is online learning strategic?
How many students are learning online?
Are learning outcomes in online comparable to face-to-face?
What is the impact of the economy on online education?
What is the future for online enrollment growth?
Principles of Effective Facilitation
Pedagogy vs. Andragogy
Principles of Effective Online Course Development
Multiple Intelligence Theory
Cercone, K. (2008). Characteristics of adult learners with implications for online learning design, AACE Journal 16(2), 137-159.

Martin, J. (June 2009). Developing course material for online adult instruction. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 5(2), 364-371.

Riha, M. & Robles-Pina, R.A. (2009). The influence of multiple intelligence theory on web-based learning. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 5(1), 97-103.

Learning Theories

We'll cover...
Principles of Effective Online Course Development
Multiple Intelligence Theory
Pedagogy vs. Andragogy
Principles of Effective
Be instructor-led but student-centered (a shift from many face-to-face courses)
Emphasize collaboration
Maintain some flexibility
Promote communication skills
Promote technology skills
Be clear, efficient, and poignant
Account for different learning styles
Use latest/best practices

Beware misunderstandings due to sarcasm, tone confusion, word misuse, and spelling/grammar errors.

Know what is appropriate as private vs. public communication.
Student Evaluation
The art and science of teaching children.
Assumption about:
Assumptions of Pedagogical & Andragogical Models (Kelly, 2006)
Concept of the learner
Dependent on teacher (passive learners).
Active learners, increasingly self-directed and independent. Here because they want to be.
Role of the teacher
Authority figure.
Guide and facilitator.
Role of the learner's prior experiences
To be added to, more than used as a resource.
Rich life experience to share, build upon and integrate with new learnings.
Readiness to learn
Uniform by age level and curriculum.
Develops from life tasks and current social role(s).
Orientation to learning
Task- or problem-centered: "I need to use this learning NOW."
External rewards and punishments.
Internal incentives and curiosity. Find out what these are for each of your students!
Employ large, easy-to-read fonts and a clear, consistent color scheme. Do not use red, as it is difficult for many people to discern.
Use a variety of graphics, images, and tables.
Provide practice with feedback and self-tests. It is important both to CHALLENGE students and provide them with formative and summative FEEDBACK.
Organize information into 5-9 chunks of information.
Ensure that your students can move through the instruction at their own pace. Pay attention to late students -- consider an alternative assignment that is approved by the program chair.
Ensure that students can review previous learning.
Ensure ample time for students to master the content.
Summarize key points and discussions for closure. Everyone who is contributing plays a role in what everyone is learning.
Provoke thinking, stimulate recall, and challenge beliefs. Not just a facilitator -- an AGITATOR!
Share student ideas to encourage them via positive recognition.
You may have the opportunity to DEVELOP an online course, not just teach it. This section provides some guidance for online course development.
It is necessary to teach to a student’s intelligence strengths,
and multiple intelligences into education is a key component to student engagement and achievement.
Students with similar strengths can work together successfully because they share a common perspective.

Students with diverse strengths can be complemented by their peers working in a group setting.

Students can compare their strengths and weaknesses with those of their peers, and achieve greater self-awareness.
You can leverage the group dynamics in an online
Strong ability to learn languages or use language to manipulate one's environment.
Adept at using numbers and detecting patterns. Logical approach to
solving problems with
deductive reasoning.
Skilled in musical performance and composition. Also considered creative and spontaneous.
Ability to recognize and use the patterns of a space.
Use of mental
abilities to control and coordinate body movements.
Adept at “reading” people to understand their
motivations or
Large capacity for understanding oneself and appreciating one’s feelings.
(Engage this via a real-world activity to reinforce/stimulate the online learning.)
How is this relevant to us?
let's take a brief look at theory
of multiple intelligences. The original 1983 theory posited types of intelligence vs. one general intelligence factor, and these types correlate with a particular set of strengths. While these intelligences are closely linked, each person possesses them in different strengths.
Howard Gardner's
There has been a lot of study, revision, rebuttal, but the core of the original theory remains provocative and useful...
Assessing, highlighting, and your students' individual strengths are critical components of teaching online.
For example...
discussion board
...so it's necessary to use multiple forms of both
and communication methods.
discussion thread
Methods of communication should exist between student and instructor...
More collaboration will be possible if more methods of communication are available to students, allowing direct access to the facilitator AND frequent interactions with one another individually and in groups.
...and among students.
6. Many students are in
5. Students need to know that their instructor their input.
So what do you need
1. Through sharing educational responsibility, online learning creates strong between the teacher and the student. Online courses are less about the teacher trying to get the student somewhere, and more about where the student and facilitator can go . Not just a professor or leader...
a who puts the student in an active role.
2. Strategies used in online teaching are not
very different from teaching in a classroom, but the challenges of are much more difficult and must always be considered.
3. , or cooperative learning, is a well-known method of facilitating effective online learning experiences, especially as it helps bring students together across
geographical .
know to be an effective online instructor?
is critical.
should focus on:
Group collaboration
Some more guidelines...
4. Students need to know for them.
the experience is
you are there
Incorporate their contributions and feedback as the course progresses; you will learn from them as well.
And think beyond traditional methods of communication... there may be a new pathway of communication that your students know of and use.
Meet them where they are!
...this isn't effective for adult learners.
Traditional pedagogy
uses this metaphor:
empty vessel
Adults may have some limitations and these should be considered in the design of the online class.
Learning styles matter with adults as well as children, and need to be considered.
Adults need the instructor to act as a facilitator.
Show your students that their discussion board postings are being read. You don't need to reply to every post, but integrate themes, use names and ask follow-up questions.
Provide your students with multiple resources of information. As an instructor, you can supplement the existing curriculum with aids, resources and experiences from your own career.
Use group projects, role playing, case studies, and simulations to enhance your students' self-direction. Put them in the driver's seat.
Provide flexibility in assignments that allows students to work ahead. Be flexible and open to how they collaborate with you to pursue their learning.
Adults need to be actively involved in the learning process.
The art and science of teaching adults.
and life stage
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