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Cells - Science 7

Science 7B

Maya Guevara

on 19 December 2013

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Transcript of Cells - Science 7

Plant Cells Nucleus By Keiko and Maya Cells Golgi Apparatus Cells Cells are the building blocks of which all living organisms are made up of. Bibliography Chloroplast Vesicle Cytoplasm Plant and Animal Cells Mitochondria The cell nucleus is a membrane-enclosed organelle in eukaryotic cells. The nucleus can be compared to a human brain; it controls the cells activities, similarly to the brain in the human body. Animal Cells A rigid cell wall
A vacuole to hold food and water
Chloroplasts that absorb light energy and convert it to chemical energy While eukaryotic cells have a nucleus, prokaryotic don't. The genetic material just floats around. A nucleus
A cell membrane
Centrioles for cell division Chloroplast are organelles found in some eukaryotic cells and all plant cells. Photosynthesis is their main function. They capture the sun's light energy and store it in molecules ATP and NADPH. Chloroplast is also involved in the plant's immune response. Chloroplast is not located in one specific place in the cell, its just floats around. Chloroplast can be compared to a solar panel, since they both convert the sun's energy into something else. Prokaryotic Cells Ribosomes build protein for the cell. You could compare them to construction workers by how they build piece by piece to build a building. They can be found many places in the cell. You can find them floating around inside the cytoplasm, or in the Endoplasmic Reticulum. Ribosomes aren't just one piece. There are two subunits named 60-S and 40-S. This model is in eukaryotic cells, but in prokaryotic cells, the model is 50-S and 30-S. Scientists have used the difference to create a drug to kill prokaryotic microorganisms that cause disease. Cytoplasm is substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus, containing the organelles and other various particles. Lack organelles that are bound in membranes
Possess singular, not paired, chromosomes
Cells divide by binary fission
Much smaller than eukaryotic cells Cytoplasm can be compared to the broth in chicken noodle soup. The organelles, the vegetables. Characteristics: Clear
80% water
Thick gel Golgi bodies modify proteins made by cells and then package and export them. The Golgi apparatus is usually located near the nucleus. Golgi bodies can be compared to a shipping center, since they both package and export products. Mitochondria carries the energy of the cell. The organelles take in the nutrients and break them down, creating energy. The process is called cellular respiration. The matrix is filled with water and proteins. The oxygen combines with proteins. The material can then be digested. Located in the cytoplasm, mitochondria can be compared to a powerhouse, how they keep the cell running. Characteristics:
Two membranes
Very Small
Location-Cytoplasm There are a few types of vesicles, such as lysosomes and peroxisomes. A vesicle's function can vary from cellular digestion to oxidation. Considering vesicles transport cellular products, they must float around in the cytoplasm instead of being in a fixed place. Vesicles are a bit like cargo ships; they store products, then ship them to somewhere else. Nucleus (continued) The nucleus is located near to the center of the cell, however, it may be slightly off center due to the vacuole. It contains most of the cell's genetic material. Microtubule Microtubules could be compared to supports in a house, since they both prop up structures. The main function of the microtubule is to support and shape the cell. Microtubules are located in the cytoplasm of a cell. Centrioles organize microtubules, which, in turn, helps with cell division and flagella formation. Centrioles are found near the nucleus. They are very like people working in a factory; they both organize and help with major events, but when they're not working, they take a break. Lysosome Centriole Nucleolus- The prominent structure in the nucleus that produces ribosomes. The nucleolus can be compared to the main room in a house. Lysosomes repair the cell membrane and play a large role in immune response against foreign bodies. They are found in the cytoplasm of cells. Lysosomes can be compared to the immune system since they both ward off foreign bodies such as bacteria. Nuclear Pore- The protein-lined membrane guiding molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. It can be thought of as a highway. The pores are large groups of protein that allow small molecules and ions to pass freely. Vacuole Vacuoles store things for the cell, and provide pigments for flowers. They are mainly formless organelles. Vacuoles are often in the center of the cell and push other organelles against the cell wall. Cell Wall The cell wall can be described, literally, as a wall. Found only in a plant cell, the cell wall holds the structure together, protecting from the outside world, even though there is a membrane. The cell wall consists of cellulose. A cell wall is not solid. There are pores. The pores called plasmodesmata allow nutrients, waste, and ions pass through. The pores do have a problem though. Water can be drained out of them. Even though the plant looses water, thanks to the cell wall, the plant can regain it's shape when recovered. Plasma Membrane Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have a plasma membrane. The plasma membrane encloses the contents of the cells, and is semi-porous. The plasma membrane can be compared to the ticket checker at the movies, how they control who goes in and out. The plasma membrane consists of a double layer of lipids. The endoplasmic reticulum is an organelle in the cell that closely works with the Golgi apparatus and ribosomes. There are two types of the endoplasmic reticulum, smooth and rough. Both have the same membrane, but different shapes. Rough ER has ribosomes attatched, and looks like bumpy sheets. It synthesizes and packages proteins. The ribosomes attached to the membrane build up amino acids that are pushed to the ER, and when finished the ER pinches off a vesicle. The vesicle can move to the Golgi apparatus . It can be compared to the post office the way it packages and sends off the items. Ribosomes Vacuoles are like storage boxes; they store things for the cell so that the cell can use them. Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth ER looks like smooth tubes.
It stores steroids along with creating them. The smooth ER also stores ions. You could compare the smooth ER to a storage garage because of how you can sore important items for later use.
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