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The Plantae Kingdom

A detailed description of each of the 10 phyla of plants.
by

Alex Webber

on 24 April 2010

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Transcript of The Plantae Kingdom

http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/courses/systematics/Phyla/Phylum_directory.html
http://www.cycadlover.com
Botany notes. "Holt: Modern Biology Book."
http://www.hcs.ohio-state.edu/hcs300/svp2.htm
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/plants/sphenophyta/sphenomm.html
http://extension.usu.edu/range/forbs/horsetail.htm
http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/webb/bot311/bot311-00/celltissorgan/coniferophyta.htm
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/anthophyta/anthophyta.html
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-monocots.htm
http://www.hcs.ohio-state.edu/hcs300/angio1.htm

The Plantae Kingdom Bryophyta Most primitive
No vascular tissue
Fertilization depends on water
Depend on rhizoids for anchor
Pioneer species that initiates growth
Also used for water retention and fuel

Polytrichum Commune Psilotophyta Epiphytes
Lack roots and leaves
Have underground rhizomes
Found in tropical and temperate
regions

Psilotum nudum Lycophyta Have true roots and lealves
Specialized leaves for reproduction
Reproduce by shedding spores
Found in tropical and temperate
regions (swamps or forest floors) Selaginella kraussiana Sphenophyta Equisetum arvense Contains only one living genus
Jointed stems and scale-like leaves
Loosely packed reproductive organs
Commonly found in tropical and temperate
regions, usually in moist soil
Pterophyta Davallia tyermanni Usually have beatiful leaves
Most have an underground stem
Have new, coiled leaves (fiddleheads)
Produce spores on underside of leaves
Found in all climates, very adaptive Cycadophyta Woody, long-lived unisexual plants
Seed once used as a food source for humans
Considered 'fire-adaptive' (lose leaves in blaze but regrow very quickly)
Native to tropics and warm climates Cycas revoluta Ginkgophyta Regarded as a living fossil
Deciduous plants
Only one living species (Ginkgo biloba)
Females produces butyric acid (vomit smell)
Surviving species restricted to China (in wild)

Ginkgo biloba Coniferophyta Most have needles or scale-like leaves
Usually seperate male & female cones
Used as a source of wood and paper
Found in vast ecosystems, usually in the
Northern Hemisphere
Sequoia sempervirens
Anthophyta Largest group of plants, most diverse
Unique for beautiful flowers
Form majority of crops and decorative plants
Dominate terrestrial ecosystems
Found in all climates and parts of the world


Gnetophyta Desert shrub
Source of ephedrine (decongestant)
Unique in resemblence of angiosperm
Only gymnosperm to double fertilize
Commonly found in dry climates (desert), but Gnetum is found in tropics
Welwitschia mirabilis Opuntia ficus-indica Monocot One cotyledon in embryo
Leaves have parallel venation
Scattered vascular bundles in stems
Flower parts usually occur in threes
Very diverse group in terms of location Lilium hansonii Dicot Have two cotyledons in embryo
Leaves have net venation pattern
Stems are radially arranged in vascular bundles
Flower parts are usually in fours or fives
Very diverse group in terms of location Acer carpinifolium The End
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