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Planet Earth

Planet Earth

Dean Meyer Meyer

on 15 May 2013

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Transcript of Planet Earth

Planet Earth Topic 1: Minerals

rock – a natural material composed of one or
more minerals

mineral – an inorganic, naturally occurring solid
-can be an element (a pure substance that cannot be broken down into another substance by a chemical means)
-or can be a compound (two or more elements combined) Clues to Mineral Identification 1.Hardness - Mohs hardness scale – in geology, a scale that compares the hardness of ten minerals; talc has a hardness of 1 (the softest) and diamond a 10 (the hardest) 2.Lustre – the light-reflecting properties, or “shininess”, of minerals 3.Color 4.Streak – the color of a mineral in powdered form 5.Crystal formation – how it breaks apart when you drop or break it.
cleavage – breaking along smooth, flat surfaces,
or planes
fracture – breaking with rough or jagged edges Topic 2: Rocks and the Rock Cycle 1.Igneous Rock- “fire” formed from rock cooling
-magma – melted rock, formed under the Earth’s crust by high temperatures and pressure. When it cools and hardens it is called intrusive rock. (eg – granite) Magma may contain crystals, the larger the crystals, the slower it cooled. -lava – magma that breaks through the Earth’s crust. When it cools on the surface of the Earth after a volcanic eruption it is called extrusive rock. Sedimentary Rock – rock made from sediment – loose materials, such as bits of rock, minerals, and plant and animal remains (“building up”) - stratification – the arrangement of sedimentary rock in visible layers - compaction – the process by which sedimentary rock is formed from sediment, through the weight and pressure of water and other sediment (shale and sandstone)[sketch Fig. 5-12A here] - cementation – a process by which particles are held together by another material (conglomerate) Metamorphic Rock – a type of rock made when high pressure and heat act on another type of rock and change it into a new form (shale slate schist) Rock cycle – the naturally occurring process in which rocks continue to change form over long periods of time Sediments and Soil - compost – the part of soil composed of dead plant matter - humus – the dark colored part of soil that is rich in nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and sulphur - fertile – of soil, containing the nutrients needed for plant growth Soil Profile – a description of the characteristics of the different layers that make up a particular soil a) topsoil – the topmost layer of soil, which is
dark-colored and rich in humus b) below the topsoil – generally lighter in color
because of leaching – the process by which
materials from soil are dissolved and carried
away by water c) the bottom layer containing weathered rock
and minerals leached from above hello Soil Weathering Biological weathering
Living things break down the rock Chemical weathering
Rock is broken down by chemicals such as oxygen and acid rain Physical or Mechanical weathering
rocks broken down by non living things such as ice freezing(frost wedging. Earths Crust
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