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Jonathan Diamond

on 19 June 2015

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Transcript of Culture

2013 African American population was 45 million or 14.2% of total U.S. Population

Florida has the 3rd highest population by state
Georgia 3,150,435
New York 3,073,800
Florida 2,999,862

Escambia County 22.9%

Santa Rosa 5.4%
Cultural Norms
Rules, Values, & Beliefs
General Family Structure
Family Roles
African American Art
Cultural Views on Education
To the Counselor:
Social structure
According to the University of California School of Nursing, in Culture and Clinical Care, many aspects of African American culture today reflect the culture of the general US population.

African Americans often have strong religious affiliations. Many are affiliated with Christian denominations—notably Baptist and Church of God in Christ.
Cultural Norms
Medical care
African Americans are becoming increasingly health conscious
Health literacy in this population tends to vary by generation
Older African Americans may be suspicious of clinicians, believing their health is personal and up to God’s will
African Americans are affected disproportionately by the leading causes of death in the US, with more morbidity and mortality from
premature births, cancer, HIV/AIDS, obesity, and diseases related to obesity, including heart disease, hypertension, stroke, and type 2 diabetes.

death is an important aspect of culture, with unique traditions, mourning practices, burial rites, and even the structure of cemeteries.
death is a time to celebrate that the deceased no longer has to endure the trials of the earthly world.
based on African roots, at the time of death, old beliefs and superstitions are remembered and may be acted upon
such as not burying the deceased on a rainy day
burying the deceased with feet facing east to allow rising on Judgment Day
coins may be placed on the eyes or in the hands of the deceased, or placed around the grave site as the deceased’s contribution to the community of ancestors.
many older African Americans believe that death is at God’s will, but tend to believe that life support should be continued as long as necessary

a family-centered approach is recommended for conveying serious medical information

cremation is generally avoided

organ donation may be viewed by some as a desecration of the body

family should be informed of an impending death so that extended family members who live out of state can be notified

Cultural Norms
Cultural Norms
In 1992 Andrew Billingsley research on the African-American nuclear family is organized in three fashions:
Incipient Nuclear
married no children 47%
Simple Nuclear
married couple with children 25%
Segmented Nuclear I
unmarried mother and children 21%
Segmented Nuclear II
unmarried father and children 5%
General Family Structure
African American children are significantly less likely than other children to be living with two married parents

In 2014, 34 percent of African American children were living with two parents, compared with 85 percent of Asian children, 75 percent of white children, and 58 percent of Hispanic children
African American families share my features with other US families with some distinction
Urbanization and Economic shifts- maternal ran household.
If father not present- children recieve male contact from uncles, male cousins, and other men in the community
Older children play a key role (esp. female)
help with care of household
source of both maturation & strain
Grandparents (esp. grandmother) play a crucial role in family maintenance
Care is recriprocated

Strong kinship bonds
Take care of one other
Adaptable family roles
Strong work orientation
Strong religious bonds
Informal support network- church or community
Strong sense of pride- A degree of difficulty admitting the need for assistance

Natural remedies frequently used- laying on of hands and prayer used to heal (Homemade cast)
Keep issues within the family system- disgrace/ family disgrace
Limited trust of government and social services- police
Seniors are highly respected- aging represents respect, authority, wisdom
Strict Parenting- early curfew, street lights on, be in house
Poverty impacts education, self-esteem, quality of life, and lifestyle across one’s lifespan
Rules, Values, & Beliefs
Show respect at all time
history of racism and sense of powerlessness impacts interactions
Be professional
Don’t use ‘street slang’- seen as ridicule
Do not address by first name, unless requested
lack of respect
Prolonged eye contact
may be perceived as staring
Be aware of education level
use appropriate language
May not like certain private questions
finances, past relationships, & marital status
Consult with community and/or religious leaders
83.7% age 25+ have a HS diploma or higher
19.3% age 25+ have a Bachelor’s degree or higher
1.7 million age 25+ have an advanced degree
3.0 million enrolled in undergraduate college (17.5% increase since 2008)

Cultural Views on Education
Parents may narrate personal struggle and sacrifice to motivate academic excellence (Smith, 2009)
Put in equal or more effort than the child, motivate them to do better
Smith (2009) found that participants’ decisions to enroll in doctorial programs were:
an accumulation of educational decisions made through life
a collaboration with parents, extended, and fictive family members
provide insight, support, and resources
Strong religious affiliation
~ 85% described themselves as ‘fairly religious’ or ‘religious'
Cultural Views on Religion
African American Music
African American Food
African American Literature
African-American literature can be defined as writings by people of African descent living in the United States.
African-American literature has generally focused on the role of African Americans within the larger American society and what it means to be an American
African-American oral culture is rich in poetry, including spirituals, gospel music, blues, and rap.
Gumbo is often cited as an example of the melting-pot nature of Louisiana cooking, but trying to sort out the origins and evolution of the dish is highly speculative. The name derives from a West African word for okra, suggesting that gumbo was originally made with okra. The use of filé (dried and ground sassafras leaves) was a contribution of the Choctaws and, possibly, other local tribes. Roux has its origin in French cuisine, although the roux used in gumbos is much darker than its Gallic cousins.
Soul food is a variety of cuisine popular in African-American culture. It is closely related to the cuisine of the Southern United States. The term may have originated in the mid-1960s, when soul was a common word used to describe African-American culture (for example, soul music).
Black-eyed peas
Butter beans
(dredged in seasoned cornbread and fried).
(often fried with cornmeal breading or seasoned flour).
Chicken livers
or chitlins: (the cleaned and prepared intestines of hogs, slow-cooked and often eaten with vinegar and hot sauce; sometimes parboiled, then battered and fried).
(a spicy, homemade pickle relish sometimes made with okra, corn, cabbage, green tomatoes and other vegetables; commonly used to top black-eyed peas and otherwise as a condiment and side dish).

Collard greens
(usually cooked with ham hocks, often combined with other greens).
(commonly known as pork rinds and sometimes added to cornbread batter).
Fatback (fatty, cured, salted pork used to season meats and vegetables).
Fried fish
(any of several varieties of fish whiting, catfish, porgies, bluegills dredged in seasoned cornmeal and deep fried).
, often served with fish.
Ham hocks
(smoked, used to flavor vegetables and legumes).
Hog maws (or hog jowls, sliced and usually cooked with chitterlings).
Hoghead cheese.
Hot sauce
Lima beans
Macaroni and cheese

Mashed potatoes
Milk and bread (a "po' folks' dessert-in-a-glass" of slightly crumbled cornbread, buttermilk and sugar).
Neckbones (beef neck bones seasoned and slow cooked).
Pigs' feet: (slow-cooked like chitterlings, sometimes pickled and, like chitterlings, often eaten with vinegar and hot sauce).
Red beans.
(originally, a Native American dish of yellow corn and butter beans, usually cooked in butter).
Sweet potatoes
Turnip greens
(usually cooked with ham hocks, often combined with other greens).
Originated in African American communities in the Deep South at end of 19th Century
Fusion of traditional African music, European folk music, spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts, chants, & rhymed ballad

Originated in African American communities in late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Fusion of American & European classical music with African & slave folk songs.
Considered one of America’s original art forms

Rhythm & Blues
Originated in 1940’s
Lyrical themes often encapsulate African-American experience of pain and quest for freedom & joy
Rock and Roll
Originated in 1950's
Combo of predominately African-American genres (blues, jazz, gospel) with Western swing & Country music
17th-19th century
Southern art took the form of small drums, quilts, in figures, & ceramic figures
Similar to crafts in West & Central Africa
Helped earned money towards buying freedom

Post civil war
African-Americans began displaying art in museums, especially in big cities
Took form of European romantic and classical traditions

Harlem Renaissance to contemporary art
1920’s- A time of cultural, social, and artistic explosion
Considered the rebirth of African American art

Prayer is among the most common method of coping with stress
Pastor serves as the Gatekeeper for an individual seeking assistance

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