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Europe's Heartland

France, Benelux, Germany, Switzerland, Austria

Amy Williams

on 2 February 2012

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Transcript of Europe's Heartland

Europe's Heartland France
The heart of western Europe Germany Benelux Switzerland Austria 2nd largest
European country northern France -
Northern European Plain southern France -
mountains (Pyrenees & Alps) Rivers connect the
regions of France
and others French Pyrenees French Alps
Walker beneath Mont Blanc
(highest point in Europe) The French specialize in growing grapes to make wine and raising cattle and sheep to make world famous cheeses (over 250!). Tourists visit

Paris to see... Louvre Museum Notre Dame Cathedral Sacré Coeur (Sacred heart) located
on top of the Montmartre hill and of course . . . Champs-Elysees with the Arc de Triomphe Tourist also visit . . . the Eiffel Tower. the French Riviera on the Mediterranean and ski the French Alps. French Economy
industry (making cars& trucks, chemicals, textiles, food processing)
high-tech industry
tourism France's People & Culture Most are ancestors of Celts, Romans, or Germanic peoples
Speak French
Consider themselves Roman Catholic
Islam is France's 2nd religion
Most live in cities
They take pride in their culture - cooking, fashion, arts Islam in France City life in Paris Daily life French History Late 1700s - French Revolution brought the decline of powerful monarchies and the rise of democracy In 1775, Queen Maria Theresa of Austria-Hungary wrote to her daughter Marie-Antoinette,

“Likewise I cannot help but touch upon a point that many of the papers repeat to me too often: it is the hairstyle that you wear. They say that from the roots it measures 36 pouces high and with all the feathers and ribbons that hold all of that up! You know that I have always been of the opinion that one should follow fashion moderately, but never carry it to excess. A pretty young queen full of charms has no need of all these follies. Quite the contrary. A simple hairstyle suits her better and is more appropriate for a queen. She must set the tone, and everyone will hurry to follow even your smallest errors…”

Marie-Antoinette responded,

“It is true that I am a bit occupied by my hairstyle, and as for the feathers, everyone wears them, and it would look extraordinarily out of place not to” (quoted in Hosford).
French Government Democratic Republic
President - elected by the people & has a lot of power
Presidents term is 5 years & cannot serve more than 2 terms
Prime Minister - appointed by the president France's president Nicolas Sarkozy & first Lady Carla Bruni-Sarkozy Belgium-Netherlands-Luxembourg Small with a lot in common
low flat lands
densely populated
people live in cities
work in businesses or factories
enjoy a high standard of living
parlimentary democracies with constitutional monarchies Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Economy
Trade & manufacturing center
Few natural resources
imports raw materials to make and export vehicles, chemicals, & textiles. People & culture most Belgians live in cities 3 Regions of Belgium are... 1 - Flanders - known as Flemings & speak Dutch, N & W of Brussels 2 - Wallonia - known as Walloons & speak French, S & E of Brussels 3 - Brussels - bilingual, mix of both language groups Tensions sometimes arise between Flemings & Walloons. Brussels - capital & headquarters of the EU
Antwerp - busy port & center of the world diamond industry Houses in Brussels The people are known as Dutch Belgian royal family King Albert II & Queen Paola Sometimes, people refer to the Netherlands as Holland.
Holland is a region of the Netherlands.
The confusion is very similar to that of the UK & England. 25% lies below sea level = dikes to keep the sea (high tide) from flooding the Netherlands The People
90% live in cities & towns
Amsterdam is the capital & largest city
Houses are narrow & tall to take advantage of limited space
work in service industry, manufacturing, & trade The Dutch are famous for their exports of flowers (tulip especially), cheese, & vegetables. For Mr. D
Transportation Holland Flower Auction Tulip Field Dutch royal family Luxembourg has a central location in Europe. Language - Language is the most important element of cultural identity for the native-born. Those residents speak, read, and write in French, German, and Luxembourgish (Lëtzebuergesch), switching between them effortlessly. The major newspaper publishes most international news in German, cultural features in French, and classified advertisements in Luxembourgish. Luxembourg is a constitutional monarchy; the grand duke is the head of state, but he swears to observe the country's laws and has little political power. Language: Dutch Sites of Luxembourg Located in Central Europe & encircled by 9 other countries Northern Germany
Northern European Plain

Central Germany
rocky higlands (coal)

Southern Germany
Alps - famous for their beauty
forests on lower slopes threatened by acid rain France & Benelux challenges
aging population
poor conditions in ethnic communities Rivers vital to economic growth -
transport materials & goods Danube River one of Europe's most important waterways
begins in the Black Forest & winds eastward across Germany Elbe River Central Highlands to the North Sea
Hamburg (Germany's largest port city) located on Elbe Rhine River Germany's most important river
begins in Swiss Alps flows through Germany,Netherlands & empties into the North Sea
Rhine is long & deep allowing ship to travel far inland German History Its central location made it a crossroads of people, ideas, & armies. For centuries, Germany was a collection of states that were involved in many wars & struggles. They did not unite to form the nation of Germany until 1871. http://www.history.com/videos/causes-of-world-war-i
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