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Globalization and Transnational Social Movements

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Dilara Zengin

on 9 June 2014

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Transcript of Globalization and Transnational Social Movements

Globalization
and
Transnational Social Movements

Thank you for your interest


Basak Bozkurt
Basak Sürercan
Dilara Zengin
Hasan Can Tanis
Yigit Mahmutoglu


1.
Was the Arab Spring a Regional Response to Globalization?

2.Do you think the concept of citizenship has a major role on growing protests all over the world?

3.Do you think that the #OccupyGezi movements would had shown similarity with OWS or Arab Spring or none of them?


Moore’s essay:
̵-examines the effects of increased globalism by examining the wider context of the uprisings both within and beyond the Middle East region.

̵-argues that although the peripheral incorporation of the Middle East and North Africa region into active processes of globalization exacerbated existing inequalities and economic hardships, the Arab Spring was a series of national responses to anachronistic regimes and domestic conditions catalyzed but not created by the pressures of globalization.

Ella Moore, "To Wht Extent can the Arab Spring be Explained as a Regional Response to Globalisation?"
The uprisings were:
̵ -spontaneous,
̵ -the lack of international collusion,
̵ -the dominance of indigenous economic, political, and social factors,
̵ -not fuelled by ideology but were driven by socio-economic grievances and political frustrations.

Six Arab countries: Egypt, Tunisia, Syria, Libya, Bahrain and Yemen

Arab Uprisings
̵Olivier Roy: “These movements are patriotic rather than nationalist, taking root in a domestic context and confronting the authorities without accusing them of being puppets of a foreign power”

̵Sen: “The central issue of contention is not globalization itself but with the very unequal sharing of the benefits”
̵
Unequal incorporation into processes of globalization aggravates existing deficits.
̵Increased integration strengthened social development in the region encouraging political and economic liberalization.

Movements and Globalization
Iranian
Green Movement 2009
Greece
Italy
Spain
Prague Spring 2005
India
Israel
Chile
USA
Common motive: widening inequalities entrenched by the spread of global capitalism and unbalanced and exclusionary free market mechanisms.

Driven by disillusioned youth defending their freedoms and asserting their indignation.

Other Movements
Grievances produced or antagonized by systems of globalization and unprotected exposure to imbalanced free market mechanism.

Lack diversification and competitive advantage in markets dominated by hegemonic powers.

Harvey: “Globalization is imperialism manifest. In the Middle East this has led to adverse incorporation into global markets”

Kamrava: “Integration into economic globalization was limited due to both indigenous and exogenous factors including authoritarian political leadership, the underdevelopment of domestic markets and a lack of technological capabilities”

Impact of Globalization
Main Reasons of Uprisings
- Inequitable national economic growth
- National inequalities
- Sultanistic dictators and their patrons and the ruling elites
- High levels of unemployment
- Low wages
- Rising food costs

Demand for Democracy
The Middle East uprisings demanded greater democratic representation for their people in the form of democracy, pluralism and good governance.

The promotion of global democracy leading protestors to push for home-grown democracy which reflects Middle East regional ideals rather than hegemonic constructs.

For much of the Arab Middle East there has been little signs of democratic transition, state leaders have remained in power and regimes have stood resolute.

In Summary,
-Not a unified revolution but a series of national uprisings in response to regional international socio-economic grievances.

- Driven by sovereign concerns.

- Devoid of any overarching ideology specific.

- The uprisings were not predominantly a product of globalization itself but a manifestation of the resulting rise in inequalities mishandled by sovereign powers.

The Arab Spring & Inclusive Definitions of citizenship
The main question of the writer is that " how the global liberal economic model in the South was associated with exclusionary definitions of citizenship." in the first part.
Examine triggering events on the Arab Spring

Development of mass social movement associated with the Arab Spring and their multiple social, economic and political agendas represented concerted moves towards the development of more "inclusive" definitions of citizenship and a new form of democratic politics.
Tunisia
Mohamed Buazizi
26 years old college graduate
Buazizi's public suicide added a dramatic finish to the frustrations of his generation inspring other members of his generation and the generation of his parents to protest the victimization of their sons
The Tunisian Ennahda seems to be committed to a societal reconciliation and political coalition with secular parties, Muslim Brotherhood, which promised not to field a presidential candidate as part of a power-sharing arrangement with other parties.
Building democratic systems of government
Khalid Said 28 years old was dragged out of an cyber cafe in the city of Alexandria by two policemen
Egypt
The videos of his disfigured face and body went viral on the internet, causing popular outrage
Creation of a Facebook page " We Are All Khalid Said"
Whether or not the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces will transfer power to civilian authorities following the presidential elections and the drafting of a new constitution at the end of June 2012.
There is also the question of the role that the military will play in the new one and how civilian oversight over this powerful institution and its budget will be handled.
Yemen
Tawakul Karman (32), advisor in the Council of the Islah party
Freedom of expression and liberty
Goal; Forcing the President Ali Abdallah Saleh to step down
Wear the more conservative black abeyas
On the night of 23 January, the security forces arrested her. "illegally organizing demonstrations and inciting people against the president."
This triggered protest among her supporters joined by others who called for a "regime change"
Complicated transition was in evidence with continued resistance from the loyalists of the old regime and US military use of drone attacks to undermine them

There are also Popular Committees in the south engaged in the defense against the militants and filling the vacuum left by the government's retreat
Yemen's Transition
Libya
17 February
"Day of Rage"
Security forces arrest Fathi Terbil (39), old human right lawyer.
In response to his arrest, a group of lawyers and judges gathered in front of Benghazi's main courthouse to "protest"
Creating massive demonstrations that attracted members of different generations, classes, and genders metamorphosing into full-blown rebellion.
Transition of Libya

How the global neo-liberal economic model in Arab State?

Up until 1980; most Arab States;
State-led model;
popular in 1950s and 1960s
This model is an example of Arab socialism. Which seen in Egypt, Algeria, Syria and Iraq.
Support market development in the rest of region.
The most significant effect was; expansion of middle class.
The states also provide; education, health care and sub sized housing
A corporatist state emerged
; cooptation of the institutions of civil society.
There were labor unions and professional associations.

Followed the violent overthrow of the government of Qaddafi has been complicated by the fact that the Islamists were not unified and faced political competition from the many militias that have filled the administrative vacuum defying attempts at political control
NEO-LIBERAL DEVOLOPMENT and the POLITICS of ECONOMICS
Social movements

T.here were bigger investments which were not available locally.
Syria and Egypt.In 1967 and 1973 Arab – Israeli war.
The major effect was on the Arab oil producing states of the Gulf region.
Boycott of the Arab oil producers and supporters of Israel

Brought the end of the old regimes
Model had a trouble;

The weapon of protest remains effective in shaping the pace and the outcome of the transition especially in Tunisia and Egypt
Threat to the economic rebuilding effort, but the citizens of these states see a new model of development in the twin demands of employment and liberty
Workers, women, and other groups remain very active in the transitions and seem unwilling to accept the call to demobilize as part of the return to law and order and economic reconstruction
Democracy provides a vehicle for the articulation of their needs, their continued political engagement

Arab States which incurred debts to finance imports substitution industrialization and war; turn into International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
80s-90s; There were severe economic crises in the in the oil producing states of the Gulf region.
Aggravated by, Iraq invasion and occupation of Kuwait in 1990.
Fear of an Iraqi threat; the smaller Gulf States had a coalition financed by; Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates.
The dwindling oil rents made these state stable.
After 1980;
Wael Ghoneim
He is a 30 years old Google Marketing executive and a friend of Khalid.
Created and administrated the page, inspired by the Tunisian revolution and eventually contributed to the forced stepping down of Mubarak
When the police discovered that Ghoneim was the creator of the page, he was arrested and held incommunicado for 11 days when he was released shortly before Mubarak's resignation
Destroy the public sectors in; Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Egypt.
Rise rates of unemployment.
The provision of education and health-care aggravated the developmental challenges.
Working women had problems.

National, regional and international changes; (Devastating)
Youth unemployment rates increased;
The state control not ended. There is control of labor unions.
States were against non-governmental organization.
Non-governmental organizations were forbidden from any independent political activities unless these were to serve the interest of state.

The result;
In countries where the protest movements associated with the Arab Spring have broken out ; youth employment; %30 in Tunisia, %25 in Egypt, %35 in Yemen, 20% in Bahrain and %70 in Syria.
Dependence on their family
Marriage became highly cost.

arab Spring's Outlook
-Like the global neo-liberal model applied in the South, the neo-liberal contract that developed in the North downsized the welfare state and the social safety net, designed to protect the most vulnerable in society, as a means of reducing budget deficits and restoring economic health.

-The bombings of the World Trade Center in NY and the Pentagon in Virginia were represented a major challenge to security of the USA.

The U.S Neo-Liberal Model in the Age of Global Capital
-The resulting global war on terror led to the rise of national security states in the USA and in Europe where citizens were asked to choose between freedom and security.

The latter was used to justify expanded defense spending to fund two wars:
1. Overthrew the Taliban government in Afghanistan
2. The war on Iraq.

Within the USA, the war on terror was associated with the passage of the Patriot Act that gave new legal and extra-legal powers to the executive branch and its law enforcement agencies like the FBI and the newly created Homeland Security Department in the pursuit of those suspected of terror-related activities.

The unrestrained military spending coupled with unregulated economic activities by banks especially in the housing market finally contributed to a deep recession that began in 2008 with high levels of unemployment and higher levels of foreclosure in the housing market.

Joseph Stiglitz: "a system where we've socialized losses and privatized gains. This is not capitalism, that is not a market economy. That's a distorted economy".

-On the other hand, democratic politics in the present US electoral cycle shows the unregulated political role played by big money represented by what are called Super PACs.

As a result of the unregulated political power of the super-rich, there is a major corruption of the democratic political process.

Reasons for OWS Movement
This is the backdrop for the grievances which the OWS movement has articulated.
Goal: is to protest and publicize the growing forms of social and economic inequalities in the USA that increasingly became visible as a result of high levels of unemployment, corporate greed, corruption, and the role of big business in government

"WE ARE 99%"
Tactic of peaceful encampment.

Like the protests in the Middle East, they also created a Facebook page for the protest that allowed the larger public to follow its activities.


OWS Movement
The Arab Spring Meets the Occupy Wall Street Movement: Examples of Changing Definitions of Citizenship in a Global World

Mervat F. Hatem


1. Increased concentration of wealth in the hands of 1% of the population, corporate greed and corruption characterizing neo-liberalism in the North,
2. The failures of the system of political representation to address this.

-In conclusion the connections between the different forms of protest begun in 2011 in the Middle East, Europe, and the USA and are continuing in 2012 support the contention of the multitude as a developing global actor.

It is important to note the differences between these models and the agendas of the protest movements that are responding to them.

̵ Old forms of organization and protest, like word of mouth in poor neighborhoods and forms of union
New ones that engage Internet-savvy, middle class urban youths, will be relevant for the future of an increasingly global world.

Increasing awareness: the need for a new democratic politics that goes beyond the electoral cycles signaling new forms of engagement.

Conclusion
Debate Questions
• Arab Spring: challenging, capitalism and authoritatian national security states

• OWS: challenges financial regime

• Increase of power of TNCs, which have direct or indirect control on most forms of production and finance and integrating North and South.

• Twitter, Facebook and Google; socially integrating but capitalist/profitable enterprises as well.

Globalization:
• Increased mobility of global capital diminish power of the state

• Reorganization of system: uniting potentially conflicting interests of national and global capital

• States serve the interests of TNCs; TNCs serve the interest of corporate elite (%1)

• Orthodox/Theorotical Assumption: Globalization will have a spill-out impact on societies; and the prosperity of societies will be lifted by increased globalization.

• Reality: Inequal distribution of wealth. Wealth is now concentrated on fewer hands, which (as opposed to the assumption) increase inequalities on so many levels.

Empire(Hardt and Negri, 2000):
• Empire is decentred and deterritorial

• Mobility of actors increase economic and political integration among regional actors; and creates biopower.

• Biopower: Form of power that regulates social life from inside; primary task is to administrate life.

Multitude:
• Marx: Proletariat is revolutionary agent

• Hartdt & Negri: Multitude

• More complex, not homogenous, not exclusive; eager to develop relationship with outside

In this Essay:
• Challange is to bridge the distance between the common sense and direction (as the distance between OWS and Arab Spring) and its reconstitution of the new democratic politics.

1) the distinction between the internal and the external is rapidly dissappearing

2) global capital and the multitude compete in the effort to shape the political economies of the Middle East and the U.S in some familiar and not so familiar ways.

What Exactly Did Protestors Hope to Accomplish?
47 years old police woman confiscated his wares for not having a proper permit. After that incident he set himself on fire. In this incident, we can see all the elements of the severe economic crisis associated with the neo-liberal transition in the Arab world;
College graduate
Not find an appropriate job
Downward mobility by taking a street vending job.
Compounded by police abuse
These trigger events showed the complexity of the concerns of the very large youthful generations that were at the heart of the Arab Spring.

The Islamist did not lead the protest, but they are the one groups that participated.

The demands of the protestors had very little to do with identity politics with which Islamists were associated.

Reflecting broad-based concerns of their citizens.
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