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Conception and Infertility

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Holly Greer

on 10 September 2013

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Transcript of Conception and Infertility

Conception and Infertility
True or False?
Chapter 2
Holly Greer & Katie Burgess
What is conception?

•Conception is the union of an ovum (egg) and a sperm cell.

•Conception is the process that combines genes from each parent.

•When conception occurs, 23 new pairs of chromosomes are formed.

Are girls born with ova (egg cells)?
Although immature, females posses all ova they will ever have, at birth.

(pages 61-68)
Sperm Cells

After meiosis, each sperm cell contains 23 chromosomes. Half of the sperm cells have an X sex chromosome and the other half has a Y sex chromosome.
Which gender is more often conceived?
Sperm Cells
Sperm cells with Y sex chromosomes (male) seem to swim faster than X sex chromosomes (female).
Sperm Cells
•Even though males are more often conceived, male fetuses are more likely to suffer from spontaneous (unplanned) abortion, during the first month of pregnancy. Boys also have a higher incident of infant mortality.

*Fertilization occurs in the fallopian tube.
*Endometrium is the lining of the uterus.


What is infertility?

*In American couples, about 1 in every 6 or 7 have fertility problems.

Causes of Infertility in Men
• low sperm count
• deformed sperm
• low sperm motility (ability to swim)
• STDs
• Chronic diseases such as diabetes

*The most common cause of infertility in men is low sperm count (lack of sperm).

Causes of Infertility in Women
• irregular ovulation or failure to ovulate
• decreasing levels of the hormones estrogen and progesterone
• endometriosis (inflammation of the tissue that is shed during menstruation)

*In 40% of infertility cases, the problem lies with the man. *
*The most common cause of infertility in women is irregular ovulation or lack thereof.
in a woman, it is the inability to conceive, and in a man, it is the inability to impregnate.
Ways to help people with fertility problems to become parents:
• Artificial Insemination
• In Vitro Fertilization
• Surrogate Mothers
• Adoption

• Artificial Insemination: men with low sperm count can have multiple ejaculations quick-frozen and injected into a woman's uterus at the time of ovulation. Sperm can also be donated to women who do not have a partner but want to have a baby.

• In Vitro Fertilization (IVF): this process where the term "test tube baby" comes from. During IVF, ripened ova are surgically removed from the mother and are placed into a lab dish along with the father's sperm. Once fertilization has taken place, the ova is placed into the mother.
Donor IVF is also an option where a woman's uterus is a suitable environment to bring a baby to term and ovum are harvested from one woman and placed into the other's uterus.

*These processes are very expensive and not always successful!
• Surrogate mothers: (surrogate means substitute). Surrogate mothers bring babies to term for women who are infertile.
Surrogate mothers may be artificially inseminated by partners of infertile women or ova can be harvested from the biological mother, fertilized in vitro by the biological father, then implanted into another woman's uterus where the baby is brought to term.

Surrogate Mothers
*Many legal and ethical issues surround the fact that artificially inseminated mothers have a genetic link to their babies.
• Most adoptions result in the formation of loving families.
•Many Americans find it easier to adopt infants from other countries or with special needs.
•Usually, the younger the child, the more smoothly the adoption goes.
*This means males are more often conceived.
•At birth, the number of boys born compared to the number of girls born is fairly even after considering these two factors.
What causes infertility?
Whom is more likely to have fertility problems, a man or a woman?
Did you know?
The term infertile is not used as a diagnosis until the couple has failed to conceive for one year.
XX= female
XY= male
Any Questions?
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