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Copy of Creating a Literate Environment
Transcript of Copy of Creating a Literate Environment
Dr. Melinda Carver
December 20, 2010
Steps for Creating Literate Environment
Get to know your students
Select appropriate texts
Include the Interactive, Critical, and Response Perspectives
Elicit feedback from collegues and family members Getting to Know Literacy Learners
In order to create a balanced literacy program that benefits all learners, educators must get to know students using noncognitive and cognitive assesment methods. Assessing a student's overall motivation for reading is equally important to assessing a student's development across the five pillars of reading and writing. According to Afflerbach (2007), " Students with a history of failure in reading are often further hindered by poor attitudes towards reading" (p.161). Literacy instruction should be driven by data that provides a clear picture of a student's abilities and motivation for reading. Only in this way will we be able to create an environment that meets the needs of every student in our classroom.
Creating a Literate Environment
Dr. Melinda Carver
December 20, 2010
Steps for Creating a Literate Environment
Get to know students
Select appropriate texts
Include the Interactive, Critical, and Response Perspectives in literacy instruction
Elicit feedback from collegues and family members Getting to Know the Students of A3 I give the beginning readers in A3 the Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (ERAS; McKenna and Kear, 1990).
This is a noncognitive survey that is designed to assess a student's overall attitude toward academic and recreational reading.
In order to assess cognitive development across the five pillars (phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension) students are given the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Literacy Skills (DIBELS; Kaminski & Good, 1996).
Data from both assessments is used to guide instruction during whole group and guided reading instruction. These assessments allow me to differentiate instruction according to individual preferences and needs. Students are provided with texts that are geared towards increasing their motivation for reading as well as assisting them in gaining important reading and writing skills. Noncognitive and Cognitive Assessments
Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (ERAS; McKenna and Kear, 1990)
Reader Self-Perception Scale (RSPS; Henk and Melnick, 1995)
Dynamic Indicators of Basic Literacy Skills (DIBELS; Kaminski & Good, 1996)
Gates MacGinitie Reading Test (GMRT; MacGinitie, W, MacGinitie,R., Maria, K., Dreyer, L. 2000 Selecting Appropriate Texts A range of texts that include narrative, informational, semiotic, and linguistic apects that match students' cognitive and noncognitive needs should be incorporated in a well balanced literacy program. Dr. Hartman (Laureate Education, Inc., 2009) believes that it is best to use a matrix to plot texts in order to determine if a balance of texts is being used. It is important that we use more than just narrative text in our classrooms in order to ensure that we are reaching all learners and are creating a literacy environment that promotes positive attitudes towards all types of reading. What texts are students reading in A3? In order to ensure that all students' needs are met the students in A3 engage regulary in reading a wide range of texts.
During Guided Reading groups students read texts that are on their instructional level. A range of narrative and informational texts from the Harcourt Reading Series are used.
During whole group instruction texts that are too difficult for students to read independently are read throughout the day during content area instruction. The read aloud method is used in order to give students more of an opportunity to comprehend text on a deeper level. The interactive perspective is about teaching
children to be independent and strategic readers.
In this perspective students are taught to be
stategic processors across the five pillars. Dr. Almasi
(Laureate Education, Inc., 2009) believes that the ultimate
goal of the interactive perspective is to teach children how to
be literate learners who can navigate the textual world
independently. All educators must come to this realization if
we hope to create readers who are not dependent on us
for constant support. Students learn how to:
Use phonics efficiently to decode words
Use chunking (using the structure of a word)
Set purposes for reading
Read for fluency in order to increase comprehension
Once students become proficient in these strategies they are on their way to becoming independent readers!
Critical Perspective The critical perspective engages students in critcally examining text by questioning, judging, and evaluating what has been written. In this perspective students should question why a text was written, who it was written for, and what perspective the author may have. According to McLaughlin and DeVoogd (as cited in Molden, 2007) "Books can deceive, delude, and misrepresent, as readily as they can enlighten and expand our knowledge (p.50). Knowing this it is crucial that we teach our children to be critical thinkers when reading. Critical Perspective in A3 Students in A3 engage in the critical perspective by:
Determining the author's purpose
Examining different points of view
Judging the validity of a text
Rating the importance of characters in a text
Response Perspective The response perspective involves the
reader in responding to a text through writing, oral communication, drama, or artistic interpretations. Hildreth (Laureate Education, Inc., 2009) believes that when students are allowed to respond to what they are reading it helps them to understand what they are reading and to think about who they are as a person. Reader response allows students to think about the text through multiple perspectives and to deepen their comphrension and metacognition. How does A3 engage in the Response Perspective? Activities:
Journaling (Free writing and responding to a prompt).
Creating dramatic interpretations
Creating artistic interpretations
Responding from the point of view of a character in the story Feedback from Colleagues and Family Members In order to create a literacy environment that
meets the needs of all students it is necessary to
collaborate with other teaching professionals such as literacy coaches.
Tompkins (2010) states, "Through collaboration efforts, teachers are becoming
more expert, and schools are becoming better learning environments" (p.379).
Creating a well balanced literacy environment takes extensive knowlege and
collaborating with collegues is one way to gain this knowledge.
Family members are essential in creating a literacy environment that meets individual
needs. Families know their children better than anyone else and can be a wealth of knowledge
regarding their children's interests, strengths, and weaknesses. Edwards (as cited in Tompkins, 2010) states, "Parent and teacher collaborations involve rethinking the relationship between home and school such that students' opportunities to learn are expanded" (p.30). Involving family members in
decisions about texts and curriculum is an excellent way to build a stronger literacy
program. Interactive Perspective
Afflerbach, P. (2007). Understanding and using reading assessment.
Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Henk, W., & Melnick, S. (1995). The Reader Self-Perception Scale (RSPS):
A new tool for measuring how children feel about themselves as readers.
Reading Teacher, 48 (6), 470. Retrieved from Education Research Complete database.
Kaminski, R., & Good, R. (1996). Dynamic indicators of basic early literacy skills (DIBELS):
Phoneme segmentation fluency subtest. Eugene, OR: Center on Teaching and Learning.
Laureate Education, Inc. (Producer). (2009). Analyzing and Selecting Texts [DVD]. Beginning
Reading PrK-3. Baltimore: Author.
MacGinitie, W., MaGinitie, R. , Maria, K., & Dreyer, L. (2000). Gates-maGinitie reading tests.
Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing.
McKenna, M., & Kear, D. (1990). Measuring attitude toward reading: A new tool for teachers. Reading
Teacher, (43) (9), 626-639. Retrieved from Education Research Complete database.
Molden, K. (2007). Critical Literacy, The Right Answer For The Reading Classroom: Strategies To Move Beyond
Comprehension For Reading Improvement. Reading Improvement, 44 (1), 50-56. Retrieved from Complete database.
Tompkins, G. (2010). Literacy for the 21st century: A balanced approach. Boston, MA: Pearson Custom Publishing.