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Beef

This presentation shows how beef is distincted, different cuts and how it is prepared
by

James Attard

on 26 August 2013

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Transcript of Beef

Beef
Learning Outcomes
Definitions of Beef
Breeds & Methods of Production & Aging of Beef
Points of Quality
Dissection of a Carcase Of Beef
Categories of Cuts & Suitable Cooking Methods
Preparation of Steak Cuts
Definitions of Beef
Beef is the culinary name for meat that is produce from domestically reared cattle and dairy herds .
The Quality of the meat dependent on the breed of animal and the feeding and grazing environment .
Beef breed cattle include Angus, Hereford, Shorthorn, Texas Longhorn, Charolais, Limousin, Simmental, Murray Grey,   Brahman,  Nelore and Wagyu.
Dairy cattle include Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Holstein-Friesian, Jersey and Milking Shorthorn.
Slaughtered irrespective of breed at 18 to 30 months weighting
450 to 550 kg
A whole side of beef weights approximately 180kg
Methods of Aging Beef

When animals are slaughtered, their muscles are soft and flabby.
Within 6-24 hours, rigor mortis sets in, causing the muscles to contract and stiffen.
Rigor mortis dissipates in 48 – 72 hours while under refrigeration. All meats are allowed to age or rest long enough for rigor mortis to dissipate.
Aging is done to bring out the texture and flavor characteristic of the meat.
Two Methods of Aging;

WET AGIND & DRY AGING



Dry Aging;

Dry aging is the traditional process of placing an entire side of beef (without covering or packaging) in a refrigerated room for 15 to 28 days at a temperature of 0 to 1°C
The enzymes in the beef are allowed to break down muscle fibre, increasing tenderness
Meat processed by dry aging loose up 20% of its volume weight.


Wet Aging;

Wet aging is the aging of pre jointed meat in vacuum packed bags
Stored under refrigerated conditions of 0 to 1°C for a period of 7 to 10 days .
Has minimum weight loss & a more faster method
Wet aging is the predominant method aging of beef today.



Points of Quality


Lean meat should be bright red,
with small flecks of white fat
(Marbled or Marbling).
Fat should be firm, brittle in texture,
creamy white in colour and odourless.
Fat from older animals and dairy
breeds is a deeper yellow

The side of beef (180kg) is sub-divided into A
Hindquarter
B
Forequarter
, They are divided at the Wing ribs (7) and the Fore ribs (10) . The is primarily done to facilitate transport and handling.


A Hindquarter


Dissection of a Carcase Of Beef


B Forequarter

Hindquarter of Beef


3
underneath


Shank;
Like the shin this is a relatively small joint, usually purchased whole for making consommé.

Shin;
Usually whole or minced. This joint has little meat and is mainly used for making Consommé
.

Topside;
The largest joint derived from the inside of the buttock section of the leg weighing approximately 10kgs. It is lean from fat and bone, however it is still considered as a secondary class roasting joint due to its toughness. It is not recommend that topside be roasted but it is more suitably cooked by braising or stewing, when braising can be done either in steaks or as a whole joint.

Silverside;
The Silverside is the third joint delivered from the leg which is found at the exterior part of the leg. The silverside is the largest joint that is delivered from the leg weighting approximately 14kgs, it is the most expensive joint of the whole leg because of its flavour.


Thick Flank (Knuckle):
Very tough joint of meat. Mainly used for producing mince or diced beef for stewing and braising

Rump;
The rump is the division between the leg and the chine cut right through the aitch bone, weighting 10 kilos .
Fairly tender, rump is good for either Fried or Grilled , can be Braised whole. This joint of beef is considered as a prime cut and one can derive the best steaks known as point steaks .


Rump Point Steak
Sirloin;
The sirloin is the first joint of meat prior to the ribs so the only contains one bone called the chine bone. Sirloin is considered as a prime joint left whole which is suitable for roasting on or off the bone, or it may be portioned into steaks for grilling and frying.

Fillet
T-Bone Steak
Sirloin off the Bone

Sirloin (Entrecote ) Steak
Sirloin
Fillet ;
The Fillet is taken from the inner back of the carcass and is found in the inner centre side of the sirloin attached to the chine bone. Situated near the fillet is the Kidney The Fillet of beef is the tenderest and the most expensive joint that is found in the carcass. The fillet should be well trimmed of the out silver skin as this toughens during cooking.


Kidney
Wing –Rib;
This joint consists of the last three ribs
bone which extended into the hindquarter.
The curved ribs act as a natural trivet which
render this joint as a prime or first
class joint for roasting or pot- roasting.
Thin Flank ;
This is the breast or belly side of the beef and contains a high degree of fat, normally trimmed and cut for stewing it can be rolled and stuffed cooked by stewing or boiling. The thin flank is also used in the manufacturing of beef sausages.
Forequarter of Beef
Africander
American White Park
American
Amerifax
Black Angus
Breeds of Cattle
Red Agnus
Brahman
Brangus
Limousin
Bramousin
Hereford
Polled Hereford
Braford
Simmental
Simbrah
Barzona
Beefalo
Beefmaker
Beefmaster
Blonde d ' Aquitaine
Hays Converter
Charolais
Florida Cracker
Texas Longhorn
Salers
Salorn
Devon
Texon
Maine-Anjou
Red Poll
Shorthorn
South Devon
Tareinaise
Wagyu
Piedmontese
Fore Rib;
The fore rib of beef has 5 rib bones and is located between the wing rib and the middle rib. A good sized joint with a good proportion of inter-muscular fat which, gives it a high degree of flavour and textures. Undoubtedly this is premium cut. When full trimmed back from the fat and sinews the main muscle eye produces one of the best steaks available, the rib eye or cube roll.
Middle Rib;
The middle rib has 4 rib bones and has a high amount of sinews and fat , when fully trimmed it produces two flat muscles that are very lean with a good flavour and firm texture. These suitable for stewing and casseroles and also for flash stir frying. Bones out and tied firmly into a whole joint it is suitably used for braising or as a second class roasting joint.
Chuck Rib;
The chuck rib contains 3 rib bones and is usually boned out and its meat if left as a whole joint is used for braising, when cut into dice the meat makes an excellent stew.
Sticking Piece

This is the neck of the animal which contains a mass of good lean meat around the neck. This is a difficult joint to bone out (process) the meat is good for stew and to produce minced meat.


Plate;
Boned out and diced it is used for stewing or minced meat or for the manufacturing of sausages


Brisket;

This cut is produced from the breast area. The brisket is typically boned and rolled allowing it to be trimmed of any excess fat. It’s not best suited for quick and fast cooking methods but more suited to slow long methods of cooking. Brisket is also a popular choice cut or joint for making salt or pickled beef.


Clod
A reasonable amount of fat and connective tissue throughout, recommended to cook slowly with plenty of moisture, stewing or braising

Leg of Mutton
This joint is sometimes known as thick rib. Located in the inside of the shoulder, it’s typically sliced for braising steak or cut into cubes for stewing. Can also be used as a second class roasting joint, when properly de-nerved, but because this is a lean joint it will require barding with fat.
Preparation of Steak Cuts
Porterhouse steak;

Cut from the
sirloin which joins the last rib bone of the
wing rib. It is cut 40 mm thick, and
will serve 2‑3 persons usually.
However, the porterhouse is intended
to serve 2 portions. The Italian
Equivalent is called a Florentina Steak a
specialty of Tuscany.

'T‑bone‘;

Cut from the rump end
which includes a piece of fillet
attached to the bone weight is
about 550 g and is cut to a
thickness of 10 mm.

Sirloin Steak (Entrecôte)
Cut from a boned out Sirloin

Entrecôte:
Cut across the prepared contrefilet (boned out Sirloin). A standard entrecôte steak is about 10 mm thick; the standard portion weight is in the region of 180g to 200 g.

Entrecote double:
Cut similarly, but
25mm thick, then lightly flattened
with a cutlet bat to a thickness of
20 mm weighting around 250g to 300g

Entrecôte Minute:
This is similar to an
entrecôte steak but is cut much thinner
and batted out with a cutlet bat so that
each side can be cooked in one minute or
so. This steak is also called a minute steak. 


Cut of Fillet steaks;

Chateaubriand:
This is cut from the thick end (head)of the fillet. It is a thick cut steak for two persons and can vary in weight from 350 g to 900 g. The usual practice is to flatten the meat across the grain with a cutlet bat to a depth of 50 mm for ease of grilling. It is generally tied with thin string to hold it in shape whilst grilling takes place.
 
Fillet Steak:
This is also cut from the middle of the whole fillet into steaks of 20‑25 mm thickness, the standard weight of a fillet steak are 180g up to 250g

Tournedos
:
The meat for tournedos. They are usually 30‑40 mm thick weighting from 150g to 180g. They are often barded around with fat bacon and tied with string. Tournedos are grilled or sauté according to requirements.
 
Mignon:
Refers to the tail end of the fillet, which can be cut into 25 mm. cubes for sauté or strips 40 x 50 mm for sauté de boeuf stroganoff, or steak tartare.

Cooking Degrees &Temperatures
Offal's
Menu Suggestions
Full transcript