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Computer Hardware

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on 21 November 2014

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Transcript of Computer Hardware

Internal Hard drives
The internal hard drive is the primary storage device located inside a computer. It usually contains pre-installed software applications like the operating system eg; Windows 8 or Mac OSX. Most desktop computers have several internal hard drives, allowing them to provide greater data storage.
Computer Hardware Components Adapto Sportswear
Optical Media
CD-ROM is a read-only format. CD-ROM's are ideal for wide-scale distribution of programs and data. The CD-ROM data format is identical to the one that is used with personal computers.You can read CD-ROM's in either a CD-ROM or DVD drive.
An Optical Disc or CD, is any storage media that holds content in digital format and is read using a laser is considered optical media. The most common types of optical media are Blu-ray, CDs, and DVDs. Optical Discs are durable and can last up to 40 years if kept in good condition.
Large Storage Capacity.
Stores and retrieves data much faster than optical media or a floppy disk.
Is fixed inside the computer so not as easy to lose.
You can have more than one.
Easily replaceable.
Hard disks eventually fail and can stop the computer from working.
If you are careless with your computer and regularly drop it, this can cause damage to the hard drive.
The hard drive is fitted inside the computer and cannot easily be transferred onto a new one.
Again like the CDR and CD, the DVD is another example of an optical disk drive. It works the same as the other two and read by a laser.
The primary circuit board inside your PC is its motherboard. All components, inside and out, connect to the motherboard in some way. Several important components are attached directly to the motherboard. These include the CMOS, which stores some information, such as the system clock, when the computer is powered down. The BIOS the power supply and many more.

CPU (Central Processing Unit)
The CPU, or the processor, is the component that contains the microprocessor. That microprocessor is the heart of all the PC operations, and the performance of both hardware and software rely on the processor's performance. Intel and AMD are the largest CPU manufacturers for PCs.

The Basic Input Output System, usually referred to as BIOS, is software stored on a small memory chip on the motherboard. The BIOS instructs the computer on how to perform basic, everyday tasks such as booting up the computer and keyboard control.

BIOS is also used to identify and configure the hardware in a computer such as the hard drive, floppy drive, optical drive, CPU, memory, etc.
Power Supply
Communication Between Components
System Bus
Graphics Card
Shell (Casing)
A power supply unit (PSU) converts AC voltage to DC voltage (a lower form of voltage) for the internal components of a computer. Modern personal computers universally use a switched-mode power supply.
A Blu-ray disc is a type of optical disc data storage that it is capable of storing high-definition video resolution (1080p). The plastic disc is the same size as DVDs and CDs. Conventional Blu-ray discs contain 25 GB per layer, with dual layer discs (50 GB) being the industry standard for feature-length video discs.
A heat sink is a component designed to lower the temperature of an electronic device by releasing the heat energy made by the CPU into the surrounding air. All modern CPU's require a heat sink. Some also require a fan. A heat sink without a fan is called a passive heat sink; a heat sink with a fan is called an active heat sink.
Heat Sink & Fan
A graphics card, also known as a video card, is a piece of hardware installed in a computer that is responsible for rendering the image on the computer’s monitor or display screen. Graphics cards come in many varieties with varying features that allow for a price range that extends from about £20 to £2000+!
Graphics Card
External Hard Drives
External Hard drives are very useful things for people that don't have enough space within the case of the computer for another hard drive.

External hard drives can go up to have as much room as 25TB so consumers hopefully won't run out of room!
IDE stands for integrated drive electronics. It refers
to a standard electronic interface between a computer
motherboard’s data paths (or buses) and the computer’s
disk storage devices.
Hard Drive Configuration (IDE & SATA)
SATA stands for serial advanced technology attachment.
This is a computer bus interface for connecting host bus
adapters to mass storage devices such as hard disk drives
and optical drives.
The hard drive for a computer, together with a drive
for CDs and DVDs, are usually located within the
processor box. However, an external hard drive can
provide additional secondary storage and may also be
used as a backup device. Hard drives, wherever they are located, are IDE devices, controlled by an IDE controller.

There are two types of IDE controller: primary and
secondary. The hard drive is normally attached to
the primary IDE controller. A CD drive (or DVD drive or another hard drive) can then be attached to the secondary channel on the motherboard.
Serial Port
A port, or interface, that can be used for serial communication, in which only 1 bit is transmitted at a time.

A serial port is a general-purpose interface that can be used for almost any type of device, including modems, mice, and printers (although most printers are connected to a parallel port).

USB Ports
USB ports are run on computers since 1995 and became standard on most computers in 1998. They are another type of serial port with the name of that coming to a wide range of different devices such as keyboards, printers, scanners and mice to connect to.
Parallel Port
A parallel port is used for connecting an external device such as a printer. Most personal computers have both a parallel port and at least one serial port.

On PCs, the parallel port uses a 25-pin connector and is used to connect printers, computers and other devices that need relatively high bandwidth.

A pen drive, or a USB flash drive, is a portable data-storage device. Pen drives have replaced the floppy drives of old and have become the most popular data-storage devices among consumers. Micro, lightweight and handy, a pen drive can be easily carried from place to place by students, professionals, academicians and independent tech consultants.

USB Pen Drive
A type of cable in which pairs of conductors are twisted together to randomise possible cross-talk from nearby wiring.
Twisted Pair Cabling
Flash Memory
Flash memory is a type of constantly-powered nonvolatile memory that can be erased and reprogrammed in units of memory called blocks. It is a variation of electrically erasable programmable read-only memory.
A printer is any device that prints text or illustrations on paper. There are many different types of printers. Some of these printers are listed below;

Inkjet (most common form of printer)
Dot Matrix
A device that can read text or illustrations printed on paper and translate the information into a form the computer can use. A scanner works by digitizing an image -- dividing it into a grid of boxes and representing each box with either a zero or a one, depending on whether the box is filled in.
ROM is non-volatile memory. It does not lose its data when the power supply is off, so it can be used to store data and/or instructions (called firmware) that are needed when you next turn on, e.g. for the BIOS chip.
ROM (Read Only Memory)
RAM memory chips provide a form of memory that
offers the same access time for allocations within it
(hence the term ‘random access’). The time it takes to fetch a programs instructions affects the speed at which an application can run.

For optimum performance,the ‘page’ of code that is being read is brought from the backing storage location (e.g. on the hard disk) into RAM. When these instructions have been read, the next page of code is put into position.
RAM (Random Access Memory)
Cache memory, also called CPU memory, is random access memory (RAM) that a computer microprocessor can access more quickly than it can access regular RAM.

Cache memory is fast and expensive. It is categorised in levels that describe its closeness and accessibility to the microprocessor. Level 1 (L1) cache, which is extremely fast but relatively small, is located close to the processor. Level 2 (L2) cache is located half-way between the process and the system bus; it is fairly fast and medium-sized. Level 3 (L3) cache is relatively large and close to RAM.
File Management
Linux is extremely easy to manage as it has lots of Windows’ and Mac’s applications so people who have never used Linux before can get to grips with the OS quickly and easily manage there files. It is also easy to use because of its ability to customise to your own preferences, so you can build the computer around yourself making it easier for the user to guide there way round the OS and manage all your documents the way you want.
OSX provides many useful applications to the user. The system can be set to automatically update programs and back up files for ease of use and file management. Generally, it looks quite the same as Linux, and even Windows in some ways, so if you are new to the OSX operating system it would only take you about half an hour to get used to, by then you will know your way round easily. Like the other 2 OS' it has a very clear and concise 'My Documents' folder where you can view all your documents, pictures and downloads easily which results in better file management for the user.
Windows 7 has various options, programs and back up that make it easier to see, hear, and manage your files on your computer. Magnifier in Windows 7 includes a lens mode and full-screen mode to view your files easier. One of the most important features of Windows for managing your computer system and files is the Control Panel here you have System and Maintenance, Security, Programs and lots more. Another major help to file management on Windows is the clear way the 'My Documents' file is laid out. This helps ease the user around the Windows system as everything is set into individual folders and there are no hidden icons anywhere.

With the Linux OS, most modern distributions provide some basic security features (automatic software/service updates, event logging, access control and firewall functions), which are often enabled by default as part of the Linux build. You do not need security software because like OSX/Unix, Linux does not get viruses but is still affected by Trojans and Worms so anti virus software wouldn't be a bad idea.
OSX Mac Gatekeeper looks at things you download to your computer system to make sure they’re safe and aren’t carrying any nasty viruses. If any problems occur, gatekeeper removes the threat from the system. Gatekeeper only allows installment of approved programs, therefore it is very difficult to infect a Mac with a virus. Macs can use antivirus software such as AVG or Norton but it is not mandatory.
Windows is the odd one out when it comes to security. It is not a Unix based system and therefore is more open to viruses which means there is greater need to install virus blocker software such as Norton or Mcafee. It does have basic security like OSX and Linux though like typing in a password when you start up the system.
Device Drivers
A device driver is piece of software that allows your computer to communicate with hardware or devices. Without device drivers, the hardware you connect to your computer, for example, a video card or a printer would not work properly. Windows supports lots of device drivers just like the OSX OS.
A Mac can run a device driver off almost any device that connects to a computer via USB, audio cable, or Bluetooth. For example; cameras, external hard drives, printers, keyboards, speakers can be connected but Mac doesn’t support Blu-ray.

Linux today supports more hardware devices than any other operating system around the world. It does this using a development model significantly different from the familiar Windows device driver model. Linux device drivers also provides significant benefits that lower their costs while producing better drivers.
Machine and Peripheral Management
cPanel is a Linux based web hosting control panel that provides a graphical interface and automation tools designed to simplify the process of hosting a web site. It is the equivalent of the Control Panel Windows uses. It makes it extremely easy for the user to access information about the computers devices such as printers, security, and just general system maintenance.
The OSX OS doesn’t have a control panel however, you can change various options to suit your needs by going to system preferences from the menu or launch it directly from the applications folder.
The Windows Control Panel plays a massive part in the management of the system. You can easily view your, security systems, network and internet settings, printers, hardware and sound settings and your system maintenance at the click of a button. This is a great way for the user to get around the computer with ease.
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