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itamar orlov

on 18 January 2013

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Transcript of RFID

Radio Frequency Identification RFID Introduction The History Of RFID Technology How It Works?!?! Known RFID Systems: Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is the use of a wireless non-contact system that uses radio-frequency electromagnetic fields to transfer data from a tag attached to an object, for the purposes of automatic identification and tracking.
RFID chips use radio signals to transmit data over short distances. They are used typically for security, tracking, and identification purposes. RFID chips can be paired with other circuitry to create tags or readers that also use radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. It’s generally said that the roots of radio frequency identification technology can be traced back to World War II. were all using radar to warn of approaching planes while they were still miles away. The problem was there was no way to identify which planes belonged to the enemy and which were a country’s own pilots returning from a mission. this is, essentially, the first passive RFID system.
The first RFID product is A card with an embedded transponder communicated a signal to a reader near the door. When the reader detected a valid identity number stored within the RFID tag, the reader unlocked the door. RFID chips wirelessly transmit their unique serial-number identifiers, even when embedded in objects such as clothing or currency. When an RFID reader broadcasts a request for this information, the RFID tag that contains the corresponding ID code responds with a transmission. Some of these RFID devices do not have batteries, and are instead powered by the radio signals themselves.
This diagram shows the role of an RFID chip in a transponder.
RFID is short for Radio Frequency Identification. Generally a RFID system consists of 2 parts. A Reader,and one or more Transponders, also known as Tags. RFID systems evolved from barcode labels as a
means to automatically identify and track products and people.
Access Control-
RFID Readers placed at entrances that require a person to pass their proximity card (RF tag) to be
"read' before the access can be made. Contactless Payment Systems-
RFID tags used to carry payment information. RFIDs are particular suited to electronic Toll collection
systems. Tags attached to vehicles, or carried by people transmit payment information to a fixed
reader attached to a Toll station. Payments are then routinely deducted from a users account, or
information is changed directly on the RFID tag. Product Tracking and Inventory Control-
RFID systems are commonly used to track and record the
movement of ordinary items such as library books, clothes, factory pallets, electrical goods and numerous
items. Known RFID Systems: Known RFID Systems: Shown below is a typical RFID system. In every RFID system the transponder Tags contain information.This information can be as little as a single binary bit , or be a large array of bits representing such thingsas an identity code, personal medical information, or literally any type of information that can be stored indigital binary format. How do RFIDs work Shown is a RFID transceiver that communicates with a passive Tag. Passive tags have no power source of their own and instead derive power from the incident electromagnetic field. Commonly the heart of each tag is a microchip. When the Tag enters the generated RF field it is able to draw enough power from the field to access its internal memory and transmit its stored information. When the transponder Tag draws power in this way the resultant interaction of the RF fields causes the voltage at the transceiver antenna to drop in value. This effect is utilized by the Tag to communicate its information tothe reader. The Tag is able to control the amount of power drawn from the field and by doing so it can modulate the voltage sensed at the Transceiver according to the bit pattern it wishes to transmit. How do RFIDs work Types of RFID Transponders There are three types of Transponders. Tags are either Active, Passive, or Semi-passive Transponders.
As already mentioned, Passive Transponders have no internal power source. They draw their power from the electromagnetic field generated by the RFID reader. They have no active transmitter and rely on altering theRF field from the transceiver in a way that the reader can detect. Semi-Passive Transponders have their own power source that powers the microchip only. They have no transmitter and like as with Passive tags they rely on altering the RF field from the Transceiver to transmit their data. Types of RFID Transponders Types of RFID Transponders Active transponders have their own transmitters and power source, usually in the form of a small battery. As a result of this they are able to be detected at a greater range than Passive ones. Active Tags remain in a low power "idle" state until they detect the presence of the RF field being sent by the Reader. When the Tag leaves the area of the Reader it again powers down to its idle state to conserve its battery. semi-passive active passive And more.. Dalkan/Pazomat,
Highway toll
Business card
Animal traking
Key doors
Smartcards Range And frequencies the detection range depends on the throughput of the reader and metal objects.
each frequency has different specks.
low frequency(LF) - range 3-30 cm(125 Khz or 134.2 Khz).
high frequency(HF) - range 1m (13.56 Mhz). Range And frequencies ultra high frequency(UHF)- range 3-7m (868 Mhz or 959 Mhz)
microwave- range up to 200m (3.1-10 Ghz) Pros RFID can work in extreme temperature environment.
variety of shapes ,types ,sizes and materials of tags.
no need in close physical contact to readers.
multiple tags can be read simultaneously.
RFID can track unique items unlike barcode which identifies the product type.
RFID is reliable and can be used for security purpose.
the storage capacity of RFID tags is greater then any other automatic identification system. Cons High cost. The RFID system is costly as compared to other automatic identification systems.
Size and weight of the tags is more bigger than the generally used, bar code system.
tags may get affected when they come in close contact with certain metals or liquids. the data read, is erroneous.
Limited range
No worldwide unique frequency standards
Security breaches – Tags can be read and even cloned by Reader. competitors NFC VS RFID both working in active and passive communication modes.
NFC is an extension of this RFID technology. The origin of RFID technology runs for several years, developed in the recent past.
RFID can be used in any frequency or standard that are being used, but NFC requires 13.56 MHz frequency.
RFID can operate in a long distance range
RFID is vulnerable method. NFC has come out with a solutions, and its short working range reduces this risk up to a considerable level.
NFC is appropriate for the reliable applications like mobile payments and access control, which exchange creditable information. barcode- an optical machine-readable representation of data relating to the object to which it is attached, Originally barcodes systematically represented data by varying the widths and spacings of parallel lines. Invented in 1949.

QR (Quick Response) Code-is the trademark for a type of matrix barcode, first designed in Japan in 1994, for Toyota factory to track vehicles during manufacture
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