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by

## Maria Craig

on 5 January 2016

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Software

An
is a software application for entering, calculating, manipulating and analyzing sets of numbers.
There are different software spreadsheet applications such as:
Microsoft Excel
Lotus 123
Open Office
We will be working with
Microsoft Excel 2013.

Documents in Microsoft Excel are called workbooks. The document you actually work in is called a
worksheet
. A
workbook
contains multiple worksheets.
A worksheet is made up of
rows
and
columns
.

Columns
are vertical (up & down).
Think columns on a porch.
They are identified with a letter.
Rows
are horizontal (across).
Think: rowing across the lake in a rowboat.
Rows are identified with a number.
CELLS
The intersection of a column and row is called a
cell
.
It looks like a little box.
Each worksheet contains thousands of individual cells.
Data is entered into the cells.
Individual cells are identified by the column letter followed by the row number.
This name is called the
.
The cell that is the intersection of column A and row 1 is named A1.
The intersection of column C and Row 5 is cell C5.
If you click on a cell it is active.
A
cell pointer
is a rectangle that makes an active cell's border look bold.
Labels
are used to describe data
in a column or row.
Labels are usually words or dates.
You do not make calculations with labels.
A
value
is a numerical entry in a spreadsheet.
It is used to make calculations or is the result of a calculation.

A
formula
calculates numbers based on values or formulas in other cells. A formula always begins with an
=
sign.
You can enter and edit data and formulas here in the
formula bar
.
Functions
are predefined or built-in formulas that perform specialized calculations such as SUM, AVERAGE, or COUNT. Functions also begin with

=

Function examples:
The SUM function adds a range of values to get a total
=SUM(A1:A5)
The AVERAGE function adds a range of values and then divides by the number of values
=AVERAGE(A1:A5)
The COUNT function counts the number of values in a given range
=COUNT(A1:A5)
A group of cells is called a
range
.
You indicate a range by placing a colon
between the first cell and the last cell
in the group. Here are some examples:
A1:C3
B5:Z49
D5:D9
Here is an example of a formula:
=A1*A2/(A3+C9)-D4^2
The power of a spreadsheet is in calculations created within its worksheets.
3-D worksheets
let you perform calculations using data from any worksheets.

Here is an example:
=SUM('1st Qtr Sales'!B9, '2nd Qtr Sales'!B9, '3rd Qtr Sales'!B9, '4th Qtr Sales '!B9)

This function adds the total sales for each quarter from four different worksheets to get an annual total.
These powerful calculations make it easy to use a
what-if analysis
to test how alternative scenarios affect numeric results. What if sales increase by 5%? What if we raise the price of that product by \$1.00? You can plug in different numbers to see how they will change the outcome and get instant results.

"I do hereby solemnly promise that I will never use a calculator to add numbers on my spreadsheet. I will enter a formula or function to do it for me."

You are now ready to take the
In a formula or function a range of cells is
relative
.
That means that if you copy the formula or function
to another part of the worksheet, the range of cells
will change to the cells in the same location on the worksheet
in relationship to the new formula or function.
This makes it very easy to copy formulas or functions to other areas.
To make a formula or function refer to the same cell when copying it, you must use an
absolute reference
. An absolute reference is noted like this:
\$A\$1
Another way spreadsheets can have a powerful impact is by creating a visual representation of numbers.
Charts and graphs
are easy to create in Excel and make a bold statement that is quickly grasped by your audience.
When opening a new workbook in Excel, one worksheet is created. It is named Sheet 1. You can add more worksheets by clicking on the + symbol. Each worksheet can be accessed by clicking on the appropriate tab at the bottom of the screen. Double-clicking on the tab allows you to rename the worksheet.
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