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Introduction to bacteria

Patricia Nicoll

on 25 April 2018

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Transcript of Bacteria

Bacteria are single-celled, prokaryotic organisms that come in a variety of shapes and sizes, and are covered with a cell wall.
are classified
by their shapes
Bacilli - rod shaped
Increased surface allows them to absorb nutrients well, but also causes them to dry out more quickly.
Cocci - sphere shaped
which allows them to
not dry out as quickly
Spirilla - spiral shaped
Have a unique style of
An endospore is a thick-walled protective spore that forms inside a bacterial cell and resists harsh conditions. Spores can live a very long time:
 Documented laboratory Clostridium aceticum: ~34 years
 Environmental samples Thermoactinomyces
 Roman archaeological site in UK ~2,000 years
 Minnesota lake sediment ~ 7,000 years
 Amber-trapped bee ~25-40 million years
Cyanobacteria are blue-green algae, which are basically a type of photosynthetic bacteria that usually live in water.
Methanogens (methane makers)
Thermophiles (heat-lovers)
Halophiles (salt-lovers)
Norris Geyser Basin. The orange is thermophilic bacteria thriving in water 120-140 degrees F. The green is thermophilic algae that lives in water 100-120 degrees F.
(acid lovers)
Ferroplasma acidiphilum survive by oxidizing iron and releasing hydrogen as a waste product. This increases the acid levels around it in the process. It’s possible that the microorganism has a primordial characteristic from the earliest days, when conditions on Earth were similar to this mine water.
Examples of places that Archaebacteria are found ...
They are the most primitive
organism of which we know.
What shape type is this?
What shape type is this?
What shape type is this?
Some scientists believe that cyanobacteria gave rise to chloroplasts and therefore ultimately plants by invading an ancient cell and providing food for it.
Many scientists also believe that it was an aerobic bacteria who invaded other cells and ultimately formed mitochondria.
The Florida Everglades
(which type of Archaebacteria is this?)
Yellowstone hot springs
(which type of Archaebacteria is this?)
deep ocean hydrothermal vents
(which type of Archaebacteria
is this?)
the Dead Sea
(which type of Archaebacteria is this?)
or Foe?
These bacteria
look a lot like
these chloroplasts
Often found in low to no oxygen areas where
a lot of organic matter is found, like in swamp mud. Have you ever stepped into a swampy, muddy area, gotten a little stuck, and pulled your foot back out to discover an almost black muck sticking to it that smells absolutely awful? Welcome methanogen bacteria!
Salt crystals
It is not easy to grow with salt crystallizing around you.
Each color is a different bacteria that is growing at a very specific range of temperatures.
Primitive earth was maybe
like this...
Like this
Like this
really hot
Bacteria can also be classified by how they "stain"
Rapid Reproduction
The Endosymbiosis Theory -
the rise of eukaryotic cells
from prokaryotic cells
These cells are small with sizes measured in micrometers.
Bacteria get around in many ways.
Some bacteria move using flagella.
Others have a slimy layer to grip surfaces.
Some are carried by the movement of air or liquids.

Cyanobacteria made it possible for Earth's atmosphere to change enough to allow the development of organisms that use aerobic respiration.
Bacteria also help to clean up oil spills

Obviously bacteria can cause some problems:
strep throat
respiratory infections
infect wounds
spoil food

However, the great majority of bacteria are very helpful.
Bacteria can be cool.
no, really... they can actually protect us
Full transcript