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cultures prezi

rashad allen

on 22 April 2010

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Transcript of Romanesque

Romanesque Architecture By: Rashad Allen
John Valentine Of, relating to, or being a style of European architecture containing both Roman and Byzantine elements, prevalent especially in the 11th and 12th centuries and characterized by massive walls, round arches, and relatively simple ornamentation Meaning Description a style of European architecture containing both Roman and Byzantine elements
massive walls
round arches
relatively simple ornamentation Romanesque architecture the first pan-European architectural style since Imperial Roman Architecture The Romanesque style in England is more traditionally referred to as Norman architecture.
Fact Features Western Roman and Byzantine influence
Massive quality
Thick walls
Rounded arches
Sturdy piers
Groin vaults
Large towers
Decorative arcading
Forms Buildings were very regular with symmetrical plans
Lack of sculpture and rhythmic ornamental arches
Lombard Romanesque
Types of Buildings Many castles were built

Twice as many churches or cathedrals
Religion Early Christian era

Over 100 churches were built in this era
Church Styles Romanesque churches are aisless halls with a projecting apse at the chancel end
a projecting rectangular chancel with a chancel arch that might be decorated with mouldings
More ambitious churches have aisles separated from the nave by arcades.
Churches Great Abbey Churches
The abbey church of Fongombault displays a cruciform plan, round chancel, apsidal chapels and high nave with lower aisles.
Abbbey Churches Abbey and cathedral churches generally follow the Latin Cross Plan
Speyer Cathedral the towered silhouette common to German Romanesque churches
The Cathedral of Saint-Front, Perigueux, France,

Five domes like Byzantine churches, but is Romanesque in construction. The eastern end of a Romanesque church is almost always semi-circular
High chancel surrounded by an ambulatory Generally to the west end of the building, are usually symmetrical
A large central portal made significant by its mouldings
arrangement of arched-topped windows
Smaller churches often have a single tower which is usually placed to the western end

Church Facades This facade can be seen as the foundation for many other buildings
Various components were common to many Romanesque churches
San Miniato al Monte, Florence, presents of polychrome marble facade favoured in Tuscany.
San Miniato al Monte is the definition of the architectural parts is made even clearer by the Polychrome marble, a feature of many Italian Medieval facades The components of nave and aisles are made clear by the vertical shafts which rise to the level of the central gable and by the varying roof levels San Zeno Maggiore, Verona What comes to mind when you think of Romanesque? The term Romanesque ("Roman-like") was first used to designate a style of architecture that used Roman arches and had thick, heavy walls, based upon the basilica. The style is pervasive throughout Europe. The Romanesque period is marked by: - Immense relief the world hadn’t ended at the turn of the millenium
- The resurgence of cities and trade
- The emergence of Europe as we know it
- Strengthened Papal authority
- The emergence of a middle class and merchant class
- Evolution of the Romance languages
- The peak in feudalism as a poloitical system
Tympanum The resultant surface had two main planes and details that were usually incised.
This treatment was adapted to stone carving and is seen particularly in the tympanum
Above the portal, where the imagery of Christ in Majesty
With the symbols of the Four Evangelists is drawn directly from the gilt covers of medieval gospel books
Tympanum may refer to Tympanum , an architectural element located within the arch or pediment

Basic Layout Vaulting Ribbed groin vaults replaced barrel vaulting in many cases Piers One example of a pier plan, these were typically highly embellished columns that were used between the aisles and central spaces to support the weight that the vaults were distributing. Regional variations Wall thickness
Latin cross
Choir-Replaced the term Apse because of the increasingly complicated arrangement of spaces including radiating chapels
Pronounced elements: Apse, Nave, Ambulatory, Altars
The aisles served the purpose of letting the pilgrim move around the entire church without entering the central area.
Enlarged support piers around the altar.
Sernin, Toulouse, Romanesque Pilgrimage Church (1080-1120) German Romanesque(Speyer Cathedral, 1030) Italian Romanesque(Sant’ Ambrogio, Milan late 11th c) English Romanesque(Durham Cathedral, 1093) French Romanesque(St. Pierre, Angouleme-12th c) French Romanesque(St. Philibert, Tournus 950-1020) ANY QUESTIONS??????
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