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Tenses

Present tenses, Past tenses, Past to present tenses, Negation
by

Sarah Leung

on 25 October 2013

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Transcript of Tenses

IMPORTANT POINTS FROM ALG 1,2,3,6

Theme of each chapters
Past to present tenses
Actions & states which start in the past but which have a link with the present.
Negation
Don't talk to me!
We are not waiting
They didn't finish early
They haven't arrived
You mustn't leave early
I told you not to go
Questions' time
Present Tenses
The present simple and the present continuous tenses are the most common ways of expressing present time in English.
Past tenses
Past Simple: singal completed events & past states
Past continuous: temporary or interrupted actions
Past perfect: actions which happened before a time in the past
Questions' time
Treasure Island is one of the best known and most loved children's adventure stories. Its' author, Robert Louis Stevenson, (1) ........ (be) a Scotsman born in Edinburgh in 1850. Although he (2) ............................................................. (live) abroad for many years, in 1881 he returned to the land of his birth for a holiday. With him (3) ...................... (be) his American wife Fanny, whom he (4) .................. (meet) five years earlier in France, and his stepchildren from Fanny's first marriage. . . . . .
Conclusion
Present tenses
Present Simple
Present Continuous
Verbs Rarely Used in the Continuous
Past tenses
Past Simple
Past Continuous
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous
Used to/ Would
Past to present tenses
Present Perfect Simple
Present Perfect & Past Simple - Difference
Present Perfect Continuous
Present Perfect Simple & Continuous - Differences
Present Simple
Present Continuous
Form: We form the present continuous with the present of verb
be
and the present participle of the main verb

Verbs Rarely Used in the Continuous
e.g. loving, supposing, intending, seeming...
Past Simple
Add -ed to the base form to make the past simple tense
Past Continuous
We form the past continuous with was or were and the present participle of the main verb.
Past Perfect
Had been + present participle
Present perfect simple
Has/have + past participle
Present perfect continuous
has/have + been + a preseent participle (-ing form)
Questions' time
Gibson (1) ................. (be born) in the United States in 1956 but his family (2) ............. (move) to Australia in 1968. He (3) .................... (complete) his school education in Sydney and (4) ............ (begin) his acting career there, in the National Institute of Dramatic Art. He (5) .................. (appear) in several Australian TV series, but (6) ........... (get) his big break in 1979, in a film called Mad Max. He (7) ................................ (since/make) two more 'Max' films.
Questions' time
Customs officials last night (1) ................... an attempt at (2) .......... entry into Britain by an (3) ............. group of immigrants: fleas. The fleas belong to the Cardoso Flea Circus of Australia, who are due to perform this evening at the Edinburgh Festival. The troupe (or the human part of it at least) feels that this is a highly (4) ...................... way to treat artists. They feel that it is (5) ................... for them to cancel the show at this late stage, so despite the (6) ......................... of having lost their star performers, the show must go on.
Based on Jim Harvey's speech structures
Negation
Negative Statements
Negative Questions
Words Which Carry Negative Meaning
Form:
After he, she or it:
Add -s to the base form
Add -es after o, s, sh, ch and x
Add -ies when the base form ends in -y
General truths and facts
Repeated events/ actions
Series of events/ actions
Other uses
Spelling rules:
Base form + -ing: draw >
drawing
, watch >
watching
Base form ending in -e + -ing: take >
taking
, create >
creating
Base form + constant + -ing: swim >
swimming
, run >
running
Things which are true now
Repeated events
Series of events
Did
you
saw
anything suspicious?
No, I
didn't saw
anything.
e.g.
Did
you
see
anything suspicious?
No, I
didn't see
anything.
Was or Were
Actions in process
During my training, I
was earning
a lot less than my wife. (a temporary situation)
His symptoms
were becoming
more pronounced each day. (a changing situation)
She
received
body treatment on a monthly basis. (a repeated action)
Interrupted action
We use past continuous to contrast an ongoing action with a single event which interrupts it.
Other uses
We can use the past continuous to describe past arrangements; the arranged event may or may not have taken place. Similar to 'future in the past'.
The past continuous describes an action in process at a point of time in the past.
e.g.
Elizabeth
was hunting
when messengers
arrived
with the news of Mary's plot.
Seventy cars
were crossing
the bridge when the pier
collapsed
into the river.
e.g.
Nancy
was taking
the next flight to Paris so she had to cut short the interview.
(= Nancy had an exisitng arrangement to take a flight to Paris.)
e.g. The lake was near bursting point as it
had been raining
heavily for weeks.
e.g. He
had been working
for over an hour to finish the script.
Present perfect simple and continuous
Present perfect
=
e.g. The film has started already, we'd better hurry.
e.g. My family has lived in this country since 1978/ for over 20 years.
e.g. Bob has been doing a lot of work for charities since the mid-eighties.
e.g. I have been learning how to play chess for 3 years now.
Differences
Present perfect simple
Completion
Repeated action
Permanent situation
Focus on present result
Present perfect continuous
Continuation
Duration of action
Temporary situation
Focus on the activity
e.g.
It's summer. A man is out for a quiet walk. He's walking along a country road and he (1) ................... (mind) his own business when he (2) ............................. (be knocked down) and seriously injured by a car. The man, a writer of thrillers and horror fiction, (3) .............. (survive) but he (4) .............. (become) obsessed with the vehicle that hit him . . . . . .
is minding
is knocked down
survives
becomes
HINT: Present tenses
was
had lived/ lived/ had been living
were/ was
had met
HINT: Past tenses
HINT: Present perfect tenses
This is the end of my presentation.
Thank You!!

was born
moved
completed
began
appeared
got
has since made
unusual
impossible
illegal
uncovered
discourteous
inconvenience
uncovered
discourteous
illegal
inconvenience
impossible
unusual
Full transcript