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Transcript of Glycoproteins
what are they?
Glycoproteins begin their journey in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, carbohydrates (N-linked sugars) are added to transmembrane protiens, forming Glycoproteins.
The carbohydrates on the glycoproteins are then further modified (O-Linked proteins) in the Golgi Apparatus
The carbohydrate componants of Glycoproteins vary in location on the surface of cells and on red blood cells they are the indicators of different blood types. (A, B, AB, and O)
Glycoproteins are proteins that bond covalently with sugar residues and function mainly in the plasma membrane of a cell (Berg).
The Glycoproteins are then transported in vesicles to the plasma membrane.
Glycoproteins are located on the extracellular part of the plasma membrane, with the carbohydrates facing outward in varying compositions where they preform several key functions to organism survival.
Where do they come from? How are they formed?
Function in the plasma membrane by recognizing and interacting with other cells (Lectins, selectins, antibodies)
Structure molecule (Collagen)
Lubricants and protective agents (Mucins)
Transport molecule (Transferrin, ceruloplasmin)
Immunologic molecule (immunoglobins, histocompatiblility antigens)
What can Glycoproteins do, and what are the proteins that are involved in each function?
Why are Glycoproteins significant?
Glycoproteins play responsible roles in so many functions among cells, that without them, organisms would not have cell structure, immunity, reprouction, cell recognition, etc. Without Glycoprotiens, Organisms as a whole would not survive.
Diseases concerning Glycoproteins
Glycoproteinosis is a lysosomal storage disease that defects lysosomal production and contributes to degradation of Glycoproteins. the central nervous system is mostly impacted by this disease and contributes to seizures and epilepsy. Glycoproteinosis is not a single disease but a category with several branching diseases.
Berg, J. M. (2002). Glycoproteins. Retrieved March 23, 2016, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22521/
Smith. (2014, April 19). Glycoproteins. Retrieved March 23, 2016, from http://www.biology-pages.info/G/Glycoproteins.html