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US History - 16.1 - 16.2 - 16.3 - 16.4 - Life at the Turn of the 20th Centurty

USH 16.1 through 16.4


on 13 August 2013

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Transcript of US History - 16.1 - 16.2 - 16.3 - 16.4 - Life at the Turn of the 20th Centurty

Chapter 16 Life at the Turn of the Century
Section 1: Science and Urban Life
Section 2: Expanding Public Education
Section 3: Segregation and Discrimination
Section 4: The Dawn of Mass Culture

F.W. Woolworth opens his
"five-and- ten-cent" store.
Construction of the Brooklyn Bridge is completed.
Mark Twain publishes The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
James Naismith invents basketball.
Ida B Wells crusades against lynching.
Coney Island Amusement park opens in NewYork.
McKinley is reelected.
McKinley is assassinated.
Theodore Roosevelt becomes president.
Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey circuses merge.
William H. Taft is elected president.
Woodrow Wilson is elected president.
D.W. Griffith's epic film, The Birth of a Nation' is released.
Woodrow Wilson is reelected.
W.E.B Du Bois publishes, The Souls of Black Folk.
The Wright brothers successfully complete the first airplane flight at Kitty Hawk , North Carolina.
Theodore Roosevelt is elected president.
LEARN ABOUT developments in architecture, transportation, and communication
TO UNDERSTAND how technological changes at
the turn of the century affected American cities.
Louis Sullivan
Frederick Law Olmsted
Central Park
Daniel Burnham
Orville and Wilbur Wright
web-perfecting press
Linotype machine
George Eastman
One American's Story
The 1,595-foot-long Brooklyn Bridge connection Brooklyn to the island of Manhattan in New York City, was called the "eighth wonder of the world" when it opened in 1883. Workers took 14 years to build what was then the world's largest suspension bridge.
New Yorkers celebrated the opening of the Brooklyn Bridge with a huge fireworks display, but a herd of P.T. Barnum's circus elephants had to cross the bridge before people trusted its safety.
Technology and City Life
Advances in science and technology helped solve urban problems, including overcrowding.
Skyscrapers- with the invention of the elevator and the development of internal steel skeletons to bear the weight of buildings, buildings could be made taller.
Louis Sullivan- 1890-1891, he designed the 10-story Wainwright Building in St. Louis. He called the new breed a skyscraper a “proud and soaring thing.”
Daniel Burnham- designed the Flatiron Building, which still stands at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and 23rd St. in New York City.
Each day, laborers descended to work in a caisson, or
water tight chamber, that took them deep beneath the East
River. E. F. Farrington, a mechanic who worked on the bridge,
described the working conditions.
“ Inside the caisson everything wore an unreal, weird appearance.
There was a confused sensation in the head . . . What
with the flaming lights, the deep shadows, the confusing
noise of hammers, drills, and chains, the half-naked forms flitting
about . . . one might, if of a poetic temperament, get a
realizing sense of Dante’s Inferno.”
—quoted in The Great Bridge
Four years later, trains ran across the bridge 24 hours a day and carried more
than 30 million travelers each year.
Electric Transit- Electricity transformed urban transportation. Richmond Virginia became the first city to electrify its urban transit.
By the turn of the 20th century, intricate networks of electric streetcars -- also called trolley cars -- ran from outlying neighborhoods to downtown offices and department stores.
A few large cities moved their streetcars far above street level, creating elevated or “el” trains
Other cities built subways by moving their rail lines underground
In the 1870s, Olmsted planned the landscaping for Washington, DC, and St. Louis
City Planning
Daniel Burnham oversaw the transformation of Chicago’s lakefront from swampy wasteland to elegant parks strung along Lake Michigan
Today Chicago’s lakefront is one of the most beautiful shorelines in North America
New developments in communication brought the nation closer
Advances in printing, aviation, and photography helped speed the transfer of information
By 1890, the literacy rate in the U.S. was nearly 90%
American mills began to produce huge quantities of cheap paper from wood pulp
Electrical web-perfecting presses printed on both sides of paper at the same time
Faster production and lower costs made newspapers and magazines more affordable (most papers sold for 1 cent)
In the early 20th century, brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright, experimented with engines and aircrafts
They commissioned a four-cylinder internal combustion engine, chose a propeller, and built a biplane
On December 17, 1903 they flew their plane for 12 seconds covering 120 feet
Within two years the brothers were making 30 minute flights
By 1920, the U.S. was using airmail flights regularly
Before 1880, photography was a professional activity
Subjects could not move and the film had to be developed immediately
George Eastman invented lighter weight equipment and more versatile film
In 1888, Eastman introduced his Kodak Camera
The $25 camera came with 100-picture roll of film
Engineering and Urban Planning
John Augustus Roebling- 1883 designed the Brooklyn Bridge. It became known as the eighth wonder of the world and took 14 years to build.
Frederick Law Olmsted- a landscape architect, spearheaded the movement for planning urban parks. (Central Park) He envisioned the park as a rustic haven in the center of a busy city. The finished park featured boating and tennis facilities, a zoo, and bicycle paths
LEARN ABOUT changes in education and the promotion of high culture
TO UNDERSTAND how these developments affected America's changing identity.
2. Education and Culture
Terms & Names
W.E.B. Du Bois
Booker T. Washington
Thomas Eakins
Mark Twain
William Torrey Harris was an educational reformer who saw the public schools as a great instrument "to lift all classes of people in...civilized life."
Harris advised teachers to "lift" students by enforcing strict discipline. Such discipline, according to Harris, would properly prepare students for responsible citizenship.
Many reformers viewed the public schools as a training grounds for employment and citizenship. Others saw it as the best opportunity to assimilate the millions of immigrants entering American society.
Schools for Children
1865–1895, states pass laws requiring school attendance for children
Kindergartens—originally childcare for working women—become popular
1880, 62% white children, 34% black children in elementary school
State laws required students to attend school from the ages of 8 to 14.
Immigrants were urged to go to school to become “Americanized.”
Strict discipline
a push for compulsory school attendance
a curriculum emphasis on reading, writing, and arithmetic
an emphasis on rote memorization physical punishment
a surge in kindergartens; an overall pattern of growth
few public schools open to African-American children
the growth of parochial schools
An overall pattern of growth
the curriculum expanded to cover science, civics, home economics, history, literature, and vocational training
Industrial economy demands technical, managerial skills
1900, more than half a million students in high school
Expanding education changes American society
Few public schools open to African-American children
In 1890, fewer than 1 percent of black teenagers attended high school
Two out of three African-American students attended private high schools
By 1910, about 3 percent of African-Americans between the ages of 15 and 19 attended high school (most in private schools)
Night schools taught immigrants citizenship skills and English
Employers offered daytime courses to “Americanize” their workers
Most immigrants sent their children to America's free public schools
Catholics were especially concerned because many public school system had mandatory Bible readings form the King James (protestant) version
Catholic communities set up parochial school to give children a Catholic education
Changes in Universities
• By turn of century, 2.3% of youth attend college
• 1880–1920, college enrollment more than quadruples
• Research universities emerge, offer new curriculum
• Professional law, medical schools established
• Private universities have entrance exams
- some state colleges want high school diploma
research universities offered courses in modern languages, engineering, economics, physical sciences, psychology, and sociology, as well as professional courses in law and medicine
state universities in the Midwest and California offered inexpensive educations to high school graduates
medical education restructured to include laboratory experience, as well as biology, chemistry, and physics courses
professional programs established in architecture, engineering, and law
African Americans were excluced from white colleges and universities
All-black universities and instutes were founded
By 1900, out of a population of 9.2 million African Americans, only 3,880 had gradusted from colleges or professional schools
In 1910, 5 percent of the white population attended college, compared to less than one-third of 1 percent of African-American community
In 1905, W.E.B. Du Bois became the first African American to receive a doctorate from Harvard
Booker T. Washington was born a slave and graduated from Hampton Institute
Opened Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in Alabama
As more Americans learned to read, the cultural views of the ordinary American expanded. Art galleries, libraries, books, and museums also brought new cultural opportunies to more people.
By 1900, at least one art gallery graced every large city
often financed by wealthy patrons
Carnegie libraries helped to increase the boom in free circulating libraries
focus on high culture
Thomas Eakins was an American artist who embraced realism, an artistic school that aimed a portraying real life even in its grittier forms
Eakins was an American realist painter, photographer, sculptor, and fine arts educator. He is widely acknowledged to be one of the most important artists in American art history
As literacy rates rose, intellectual leaders debated the role of literature in society. Some felt literature should uplift America's literacy tastes while others wanted a more realistic portrayal of American life.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American author and humorist. He is noted for his novels Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885), called "the Great American Novel", and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876).
Although art galleries and libraries attempted to raise cultural sandard, many Americans had scant interest in high culture - while others did not have access to it. African-Americans, for example, were often excluded from visiting museums and other white-controlled cultural institutions. They and other racial and ethnic groups struggled against this discrimination and enforced segregation in all parts of the country.
• For at least 10 years after Reconstruction, Southern blacks can vote
• By 1900, all Southern states restrict voting, deny equality
• Some limit vote to those who can read; officials give literacy tests
• Some have poll tax that must be paid annually to vote
• Some add grandfather clause to constitution to let poor whites vote
- can vote if self, father, grandfather voted before 1867
3. Segregation and Discrimination
• 1870s, 1880s, Supreme Court allows poll tax, grandfather clause
• Racial segregation laws separate races in private, public places
• Segregation laws called Jim Crow laws after old minstrel song
• 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson—segregation legal in public places
• Allows “separate but equal” doctrine if provide equal service
Turn-of-the-Century Race Relations
• African Americans who do not follow etiquette are punished, lynched
- more than 1,400 killed 1882–1892
• Many blacks migrate North for better paying jobs, social equality
• Are forced into segregated neighborhoods
• Rejected by labor unions; hired last, fired first by employers
• Competition between blacks, working-class whites sometimes violent
• Many blacks migrate North for better paying jobs, social equality
• Are forced into segregated neighborhoods
• Rejected by labor unions; hired last, fired first by employers
• Competition between blacks, working-class whites sometimes violent
• Whites fear job competition, push Chinese to separate areas, schools
• Opposition to Chinese immigration leads to Chinese Exclusion Act
Terms & Names

•Ida B. Wells
•poll tax
•grandfather clause
•Jim Crow laws
•Plessy v. Ferguson
•debt peonage

African Americans led the
fight against voting
restrictions and Jim Crow

Today, African Americans have
the legacy of a century-long
battle for civil rights.
African Americans Fight Legal Discrimination
Voting Restrictions
Jim Crow Laws
Plessy v. Ferguson
Opposing Discrimination
Discrimination in the North
Discrimination in the North
Excluding the Chinese
Ida B. Wells
moved north to
continue her fight
against lynching
by writing,
lecturing, and
organizing for civil
This theater in Leland, Mississippi, was segregated under the Jim Crow laws.
• Racial etiquette—informal rules for black-white relations
- enforce second-class status for blacks
• Moderate reformers, like Booker T. Washington, get white support
• W. E. B. Du Bois, Ida B. Wells think problems too urgent to postpone
• Born a slave, Ida B. Wells becomes teacher, newspaper editor
- campaigns for racial justice
4 The Dawn of Mass Culture
American Leisure
Amusement Parks
Cities begin setting aside green space for recreation
Amusement parks built on outskirts with picnic grounds, rides
an escape
Bicycling and Tennis
Early bicycles dangerous; at first, bicycling is male-only sport
Safety bicycle increases popularity of sport; women ride too
Freed women from chaperones
Tennis imported from Britain; becomes popular
Spectator Sports
Americans become avid fans of spectator sportsBy turn of century, boxing, baseball become profitable businesses
Offered an escape from work

1845, Alexander J. Cartwright organizes club, sets down rulesNational League forms 1876; American League forms 1900Discrimination leads to Negro National, Negro American Leagues
Offered an escape from work
The Spread of Mass Culture
Mass Circulation Newspapers
Newspapers use sensational headlines, stories to capture readers
Joseph Pulitzer buys New York World, pioneers popular innovationsWilliam Randolph Hearst—NY, San Francisco papers exaggerate stories
Offered entertaining, sensational news coverage
Promoting Fine Arts
Artists like Thomas Eakins promote realism—portray life as it is
Ashcan School paints urban life, working people
European abstract art introduced; many find difficult to understand

Popular Fiction
By 1900, thousands of free circulating libraries in country
Most people like dime novels—glorified adventure tales of the West
Some want more serious, realistic portrayal of ordinary people, life
Novelist, humorist Samuel Langhorne Clemens, or Mark Twain:
- rejects high culture yet writes American classics
Galleries, libraries try to raise cultural standards
New Ways to Sell Goods
Urban Shopping
1890, first shopping center opens in Cleveland— glass-topped arcadeRetail shopping districts form near public transportation
The Department Store
1865, Marshall Field opens first U.S. department store in Chicago
- stresses personal service
- pioneers bargain basement
Large quantities of reasonably priced manufacture goods
The Chain Store
Chain stores offer same merchandise under same owners for less
- buy in quantity, limit personal service
Offered bargain prices
Advertising explosion: $10 million spent 1865, $95 million 1900
Advertising in periodicals, billboards, sides of buildings
Catalogs and RFD
Montgomery Ward, Sears Roebuck catalogs bring goods to small towns
Rural free delivery (RFD)—post office delivers direct to every home
Brought department store merchandise to farmers and residents of small towns
Terms and Names
Joseph Pulitzer
William Randolph Hearst
Ashcan School
Mark Twain
rural free delivery (RFD)
Main Idea
As Americans had more time for leisure activities, a modern mass culture emerged.
Why It Matters Now
Today, the United States has a worldwide
impact on mass culture.
Edwin Milton RoyleOffered an escape from work and everyday concerns
“The Maple Leaf Rag,” Scott Joplin
Offered an escape from work
The Silver Screen
The Great Train Robbery, ThePerils of Pauline, The Birth of a Nation, Pearl White, D. W.Griffith, Mary Pickford, Lillian Gish, Charlie Chaplin
Low admission prices
Full transcript