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Transcript of Islamic Art
Important People and Facts
East and West empires developed differently, but shared common ancestry, giving it similarities in the architectural style (depending where you were the style of architecture was different).
Where Islam spread it would infuse its own styles with the local culture.
Reign was from 661 C.E - 750 C.E
The span of the Umayyad Dynasty was from Portugal and Spain through Africa and ending to the modern day boundaries of the Middle East.
Umayyad were ruled by a wealthy merchant family, which roots came from the Quarayash clan in Mecca.
Dome of The Rock
Found in Jerusalem, shrine thought to be the site of the Islamic Miracle of the Isra and Miraj.
Was a domed structure that was covered in intricately designed tiles.
There are columns at the entrance of the shrine.
Interior is decorated with mosaics, fiances, and marble.
Dome of The Rock
Reigned from 750 C.E - 1258 C.E
Moved the Capital from Damascus to Baghdad and from Baghdad to Samarra.
Influence from greco-roman and byzantine art styles, discarded.
There was more influence from the Turik people, and that showed in their artwork.
During the Umayyad Dynasty mosaic making remained a flourishing art form in Islamic culture and it is continued in the art of zellige and azulejo in various parts of the Arab world, although tile was to become the main Islamic form of wall decoration.
Mosaics (during Umayyad)
Was last in succession of prophets, or messengers from god, who received revelations from god in 610 and began the religion of Islam. His flight from Mecca to Medina started the Islamic calender.
Commissioned the costly and remodeling of the Great Mosque of Cordoba
Began the construction of the Great Mosque at Samarra, at that time the largest hypostyle mosque in the Islamic world with an unusual spiral-ramp minaret.
How the Art Arose
After the religion of Islam was started it became very widespread and focused on ornamental style. It made sure not to have god represented to avoid icons.
Ceramics had developed over the years. During the Umayyad reign ceramics were not as colourful (they used a technique called luster, but during the Abbasid reign potters came up with a enamel called mina'i ware.
Metalworking became a larger thing due to the demand of it from rich patrons
During this dynasty there was a surplus of wealth, and the islamic society became extremely cosmopolitan.
Islamic Beliefs and Practices
During the persons lifetime they should make a journey to the Ka'ba in Mecca
Belief in the revelations of Mohammed, also known as the Quar'an
Practice the 5 pillars of Islam
Salat: ritual prayer five times a day
Shahadah: declaring there is no god except God, and Muhammad is God's Messenger
Sawm: fasting and self-control during the blessed month of Ramadan
Zakat: giving 2.5% of one’s savings to the poor and needy
Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime if he/she is able to do
Alhambra, Grenada, Spain
Great Mosque of Xi'an, Eastern China
The Great Mosque of Kairouan, Tunisia, NW Africa
Jama Masjid, Dehli, India
Quba Mosque, Medina, Saudi Arabia (oldest mosque)
Earliest type of Mosque, first appeared in the Umayyad dynasty.
Square or rectangular plans with an enclosed courtyard and covered prayer hall.
This style was introduced domes and arched entrances known as an iwan.
Iwan - rectangular hall or space, usually vaulted, walled on three sides, with one end entirely open
Shah Mosque, Iran
Introduced by the Ottomans. Features a central dome over the prayer hall, as well as, domes covering the remaining structure.
Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul
Faisal Mosque, Iran
Example of Fatimid architecture.
Across The World
Abuja National Mosque, Nigeria
Zeyrek Mosque, Istanbul
Minarets - tall, slender tower that usually is situated at one of the corners of the mosque structure. It is the highest point of a mosque. The first mosques never built minarets
Mihrab - a semicircular niche in the wall of a mosque. Points to Mecca
Domes - we all know what a freaking dome it
Prayer Hall - well you know... oh, usually is hypostyle
Hassan II Mosque, Casablanca
Al-Azhar Mosque, Cairo
The Beauty that Lies Beneath
Minbar - where the Imam (prayer leader) gives sermons
Calligraphy is the most highly regarded and most fundamental element of Islamic art. It is significant that the Qur’an, the book of God's revelations to the Prophet Muhammad, was transmitted in Arabic, and that inherent within the Arabic script is the potential for developing a variety of ornamental forms. The employment of calligraphy as ornament had a definite aesthetic appeal but often also included an underlying talismanic component. While most works of art had legible inscriptions, not all Muslims would have been able to read them. One should always keep in mind, however, that calligraphy is principally a means to transmit a text, albeit in a decorative form. Believe it or not, in Islamic art calligraphy is everywhere!
Objects from different periods and regions vary in the use of calligraphy in their overall design, demonstrating the creative possibilities of calligraphy as ornament. In some cases, calligraphy is the dominant element in the decoration. In these examples, the artist exploits the inherent possibilities of the Arabic script to create writing as ornament
Fun facts and Purpose
From the Greek word for "beautiful writing," calligraphy was considered the highest art form in Islam.
Also, by using words as artistry, artists avoided the problem of using pictorial images.
There are only 17 different forms, however, so dots or strokes above or below the forms are used to indicate different letters. For calligraphic purposes, these extra markings add to the beauty and artistic appeal of Arabic.
Usually words and phrases are taken from the Qua'ran
There was many purposes for calligraphy, it would range from teaching books to signatures
The Horseshoe Arch
The Pointed Arch
The Keel Arch
How we can see Islamic Arches influenced other lands.
The Safavid period was the golden age of carpet making. They were costly and intricite. Commonly, there would be a medallion in the center and nature inspired decor around it
Thanks for watching!
Art History by Stockstad & Cohen