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Global Poverty

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Amy Hampel

on 30 May 2013

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Transcript of Global Poverty

What is Poverty? What is Absolute Poverty? What is Relative Poverty? How is Poverty Measured?? Relative poverty means that families/individuals have low incomes, therefore effecting their living conditions. Individuals are still able to look after their health, buy food and access water. However, they cannot provide other basic necessities, "goods and services", as they have a low income.

Relative poverty is also defined by living under the average income in the country you are in. Consequently, in Australia, the poverty line was those who lived below $358 per week for 1 adult (2010). Absolute poverty is where a person does not have an adequate amount of basic necessities most people take for granted. This includes shelter, health services, food and water. What is Trade? A contributing factor towards global poverty is trade, which hugely affects many lives. Trade is a distribution of goods and services. There are many causes and effects of trade which can lead to homelessness, no education, and scarce amounts of food and water.

Trade is a sector where unfair power is apparent. For example, America can supply things that they want to, this is a disadvantage for the poor as some things they need, wont be supplied. It is preferable that American uses their wealthy status fairly. Poverty is defined by an insufficient supply of money to the economy or an individual person/household. Generally it limits citizens ability to live a quality life. It stops people from drinking clean water, eating a sufficient amount of food and being able to get aid from health services. This is an example of absolute poverty. However, relative poverty is when the extra necessities in life cannot be bought due to a low income. Surprisingly, poverty can also be caused by bad aid. When people already in poverty receive gifts that can only help the community for a short amount of time and people who donate don't think about the long term effects. Health services are widely available in wealthy countries, however most in poverty do not have access to it. Approximately 270 million children don't have access to general health services. The World Bank goals by 2015 is battling the issue of HIV/AIDS, malaria and many other diseases.

Governments in impoverished countries have the power to provide health services to those who cannot afford it. They aren't using their power correctly, to the capacity they should be. Therefore, they should provide support for the most vulnerable. Health Gender Inequality Corruption Education Land Ownership Causes Effects Economic Recession Unfair Trade Poor Infrastructure Employment Debt Low Paid Employees Poor Housing/Homelessness Lack of Materials Child Labor Slavery Effects Causes Effects Causes Causes Effects Causes Effects Poverty is determined by a "poverty line" which was developed in 1964. People living (2005-2008) below $1.25 per day were determined"poor". People spending $1.25-$2 a day means that some are living in extreme conditions and live in "absolute poverty". Debt became an issue for some countries in the 1970's, as a consequence of the oil catastrophe. The oil producers saved all their money by banking it, as it had low interest rates. Later the prices of raw materials decreased. Consequently, countries had to borrow money from each other. This led into the vicious cycle of debt, along with the increasing interest rates. If a country has a huge debt it cannot afford to have high levels of social services to support the most vulnerable members of it's society. Dumping, market admittance and product worth are contributing factors of unfair trade. Wealthy countries can afford to loose $1 billion in Agriculture earnings. However, poor countries cannot, this causes paucity of money for farmers in those countries. Wealthy countries also charge higher taxes for imports and other products, meaning they cannot earn to their full potential. Product work is important because if prices fall too much it can lead to poverty stricken countries getting poorer and the richer countries getting richer.

Overall unfair trade is caused by appalling trade systems-the opposite to free trade. Many people loose their jobs if the company is broke or it has too many workers. In developing countries individuals don't have a high income therefore a job cut can cause absolute poverty. Poor infrastructure hinders trade, as roads are used to freight products. Transport can hold back employment as many people rely on it. Businesses cannot produce an adequate amount of goods/services because they live in a region with insufficient roads, water, electricity and telephone access. All of these are needed for economic viability and stability. Economic recession is the cause of individuals having a lower life expectancy, being impoverished and having an insufficient education. Women are effected by this as they can no longer seek employment as often women's work is the first to go during a recession. Also their work is often part time and casual so is less secure. Women are often under employed. People are not getting enough money to support their families. This means some have to go without food, water and basic daily needs to survive. It also means they cannot afford for their children to be educated as they will also be required to work. Employment and terrible trade levels means that housing will not be built to high standards. Due to unemployment, in some cases people/families will be left homelessness and may need to live in slums. Slums have very few facilities which means families will get ill.

Homelessness is also caused by natural disaster, when homes are wiped out. However, often some countries are too poor to overcome these disasters by themselves. Resulting in foreign aid to help rebuild their society. A lack of materials in poverty results in low levels of transport, infrastructure, housing and farming materials/products. This could also be a reason why some farmers are forced off of their properties. Child labor is one of the effects of trade. Approximately 215 million children are subject to "child labor" across the world. In some cases, children help their families to survive on a daily basis. Hiring children is much cheaper than to employ adults. Child labor can be daily work/prostitution or slavery. It could also be hidden by child marriages so that very young girls enter another person's household.

One of the effects of child labor could be related to how many children die each day. There are 22,000 child deaths daily. Sanitation Government Services Malnutrition Diseases/Deaths Children are left orphaned Inability to work Employment/Unemployment Causes Effects Causes Effects Education is a very important factor of ones life. Generally if women are educated they will secure better lives for their children and have a powerful role in the community. Around 72 million of children don't have access to school (2005). Education show people how to care for themselves and their families. It also teaches them their rights.

A powerful weapon is education, however, impoverished families cannot afford this. Again, if governments were not corrupt and using their power appropriately, they would offer free education like other countries. Employment Opportunities Employment opportunities are determined by the level of education. If an individual is educated they become familiar with their own rights and health. Education about contraception is also undertaken, therefore people spread the word about contraception and hopefully the combat with HIV/AIDS will be achieved. (Millennium Goal 6) Quality in poor areas of education can be a problem. Great teachers are more likely to be employed in wealthier countries than developing countries because of environmental conditions.

Schools books, text books, computer,internet, pencils and pens are basic resources to learn in the western world. Poverty affected areas would restrict the children from learning to their full potential due to a lack of resources. Resources Low Income Families Some families do not have enough money to pay for their children to have a good education. Therefore children have to find a job or get married at an early age. In many countries the children must have a uniform in order to attend school. NO Attendance/No Access to School According to 'Global Issues', there were 72 million children ages from 5-13years not attending primary school, just (57%) over half of these were girls.

Some children may not be able to travel to school as it could be kilometers away. Some villages may not even have an education system. Agricultural land rights is a fundamental asset for the economic empowerment for poor people. Globally (75%) who live in rural areas live on less than $1.00 a day- this is extreme poverty.

The communities who have poor land rights could protests that they need fair regulations within this sector, because when communities congregate is holds significant power. Forced off Land In extreme cases of poverty, farmers are forced off of their land, when there is insufficient production to pay off debts. Land Rights Owning Land Millennium Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability.- This includes in obtaining land rights.

Land rights enable people to invest, have better food supplies and secure environmental sustainability.

As1/4 of the world live without land rights, the goal works towards ensuring many have appropriate land rights. The possibility of men owning land in poor nations is 3 times more likely. Women have a lower possibility of owning land in developing nations. If the man dies this leaves the woman in a terrible position as she will probably loose the ability to feed her family. Children not Equipped to Learn Health issues such as protein and calcium deficiencies can make it harder for a child to learn. Therefore, it is essential children consume their daily food needs. Iodine is another deficiency which causes problems with brain development. Such children may not have a capacity to learn. Environment Poverty stricken people are more subject to health issues/diseases because of the environments they live in.

Malaria is caused by mosquito bites.
HIV/AIDS occurs majorly in Africa, as people do not have contraception.

Materials such as asbestos can cause cancer if the correct equipment is not worn.
Waterborne diseases are prevalent in many areas of the world because of poor sanitation. High poverty areas do not have adequate sanitation. Slums are extremely unclean and can cause diseases. Open deification is apparent in some parts of the world such as India and can cause diseases and unclean water supplies. Generally the Government does not supply medical aid/services in developing countries. Many people rely on getting support from other countries. This means that the most vulnerable members of the society are left on their own-women, children, people with mental health conditions and disabilities and the unemployed or under employed. Unclean Water and Insufficient Foods Intake Deaths in children can occur when they have not been given nutritious foods. In extreme cases children don't have an adequate amounts of foods, therefore, have stomach worms. Approximately, 925 million people are left hungry daily. Millennium Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality Parents can die during war, famine and accidents, leaving their children in the care of grand parents, other family members or in the worst case in orphanages. People who suffer from injuries and diseases cannot go to work, therefore, their family is left to suffer. Children die each year due to famine and disease. The good news is that a third of child deaths have decreased this millenium. Child labor is linked to slavery as there are many children in poor countries who are subject to slavery (sex trafficking, human trafficking and physical labor).

Orphan's in India are maimed by criminals, they beg on the streets for people to give them money. However, the money is claimed by the criminals, leaving very little for the children. Children in poor countries have a rate of 27-28% of being under fed. As a result many children are left with pot bellies, it could also account for the rate of deaths of children per day.

The condition of water was tested in Indian, Jalan and Somanthan. The conditions of the water showed that 60% of their water supplies were contaminated; some including fecal bacteria. Rural Areas Citizens who live in rural areas will not have immediate access to health services as there is no transport. It will be hard to seek medical advice and can lead to fatal experiences. Malaria (yearly 350-500,000,000 cases), HIV/AIDS (globally 4 000,000 people) and Tuberculosis are the major three diseases directly caused by the environment.

Instead of seeking medical advice many self diagnose, as this is inexpensive. Consequently, people buy their own medication "over the counter". This can cause other health issues. Government Services As the Governments do not provide free education systems in developing countries, children cannot learn because they are expensive. Therefore children start families or work at an early age. Lucky children may have access to a free school. Learns about Prevention of Diseases When teenage girls were taught about sex and the likeliness of contracting HIV/AIDS, individuals were less likely to have sex for this reason, in Africa. Assuming that girls stopped sexual activity or used contraception as 3.9% of girls were having children from 5.4%, out of a sample size of 28%.

If people are not educated about safe sex then they are more likely to contract diseases. People don't Learn Rights People in low income families don't learn their rights as a result of no education. Kekenya Ntaiya had to endure the painful practice of "Female Circumcision". She demanded to go to school, then went on to do further education in America. She then learn it was illegal in Kenya. Now she is trying to stop this practice by being a teacher. Agriculture Sufferings Breeding of common farm animals will be decreased due to falling numbers of farmers fleeing to the city to seek a better life.
The production of fruits and vegetables will also suffer for this reason, it obviously causes an insufficient food supply. Globally food security is of enormous concern. Accessing Appropriate Tools/Supplies In rural areas farmers find it hard to access advanced technologies used for farming.

Water in rural areas is also a problem in some parts of the world.

Another problem is the sale of sterile seeds by large multinationals. This means each year the farmer must put aside money to buy ever more expensive seed, rather than just keeping some aside from the crop. War Government Developing countries' Governments are unsure how to break the cycle of poverty. In these countries general health services and education systems are not supplied by the government resulting in even more impoverished people. Often Government officials are corrupt and do anything to maintain power and to further their own wealth.

According to transparency Internationals Report (2010) states that 80% of people surveyed believed their Government was "corrupt". Wars are a major threat to poverty as most expenses are used for weapons instead of education. If only one percent of the expenses went to education used for weapons every child would have the basic benefit of getting an educations. When a country is engaged in war on their territory most other activities cease to be viable. Money and Resources No Education Low Paid for same work as men Cultural/Religious Values and Beliefs Women are deprived of getting their education for various reasons. Women have the power to change the world through education and this is what authorities fear. In many cultures women are not valued so they are not offered an education. Corruption is the abuse of family, friends, and spouses. In poverty terms, corruption is highly based on the governments decisions resulting in war and more impoverished villages. Often those in powerful positions accept bribes which affect diverse actions such as fair police treatment, access to food and health care. Therefore, people in power have a major impact on corruption and could be changed if political leaders fought against corruption. If impoverished country leaders didn't accept bribery then it would also reduce corruption. Health Services Quality of Products The quality of products (foods, supplies, materials) all deteriorate after corruption. This effects not only the immediate community but also the wider community who buy the produce. It means customers are not getting value for money, becoming more impoverished when they could be spending their money on other things such as agriculture (animals, vegetable plots, employing field workers). Whilst corruption occurs the cost of daily living rise, through natural disasters, war and bribery. This is detrimental to most people in developing nations.

Also due to governments making selfish decisions to boost their own wealth, means resources are unavailable to others. If governments spent more money on systems instead of themselves the world would be equally wealthy. People offer bribes to those in authority as they can escape high taxes, penalties and fines. They can also get appointments quicker than usual. The briber and the acceptor both benefit. This means that poor people, no matter how able they are, are less likely to get good jobs. These jobs will go to the wealthy or their families. Bribery There are inadequate drugs for women and children as they can easily be accessed by others at pharmacies. Therefore such people are highly disadvantaged. Often the medication is taken for personal gain so that those in need miss out or have inferior quality or diluted medication. Judicial Systems Justice systems are unfair as poor people don't stand a chance against the wealthy.

Wealthier citizens can afford to pay for better lawyers e.t.c., therefore having a guaranteed chance of winning any case.

Poor people are often charged with crimes they didn't commit while the wealthy are left free. Crimes against slum dwellers are rarely investigated as they are see as "disposable." Gender equality is classified as equal treatment for both females and males. Furthermore, rights for them should be the same, but aren't always. Women's voices should be heard and have the same value as males. In every five people 3 females and 2 males live in extreme poverty.

Most males hold great power throughout some parts of the world. By recognizing that females could improve their lifestyle, they may balance the power out. However, if women were educated they would know their rights, as a result would probably protest and petition about their rights. Women are often paid less than men for enduring the same work as men, in developing countries. As a result of this 70% of the worlds poverty is from females. Women are known to do 66% of the worlds work, and still get paid less than males. Some religions hold a belief that men should be more dominant than females. Neglecting women's rights to do various activities. In some societies women are actively prevented from taking on a meaningful role economically and politically. Education Women pass on their education about rights and learning on money, health care and many other things. This means educating a woman is a very powerful tool. However, men don't pass it on, but keep the benefits of an education to themselves to maintain the existing social order.

For women, a lack of education means poor health care and high infant mortality. No Voting Opportunities In many countries women cannot vote, therefore, aren't able to express their ideas to make the country better for children and fellow women. Being employed is to earn money from a business or cooperation by working. Unemployment is obviously the opposite. As well as unemployment, under employment is a huge issue.

Often small local businesses struggle to employ a lot of people to work for them as the result of their power position. Unemployment could be stopped, if there are more jobs by the Governments power to improve areas of the community to create work. Ultimately, the wider community benefits as education systems, infrastructure and health services are improved and this means employment. Supporting Family If the current provider of the family faces unemployment, it can cause financial instability. This makes it difficult to provide food and other needs to the family. This can mean that children will need to leave school to support the family. Jobs Unavailable Support/Aid Some work is lost through Aid programs that support the donor country. Sometimes unemployment is caused by citizens from other counties who take jobs that could be performed by somebody from their own country. They often perform this work at a cheaper rate which is why they are employed. Limits Country Development If women's voices are heard in developing countries it would help the economy and be socially benefiting. If women don't get an education, they cannot reduce the amount of victims in poverty. Fully functioning woman in a society benefit all of that society. Violence Women are not treated with the same rights as men. Men hold a "dominant" role. Therefore, become violent towards women takes places when females bring shame(neglects societal/religious beliefs) to the family . In many cultures it is acceptable to beat a woman for any perceived indiscretion. If a woman is raped then she "is to blame" as it is shameful for the man. Unemployment can be caused by no job opportunities as many people cannot afford to hire workers in impoverished areas. Overpopulation Overpopulation rate increases by 3% which accounts for unemployment; there are too many people, but not enough jobs. Some parts of the world are more overpoultaed than others. Overpopulation puts a starin on all the resources of that city or country. Low Skill Level Cultural Expectation In many societies a mans worth is more than a women's. This is also related to many religions such as Islams. Devalued In some countries, girls are not valued to the same extent as males. Therefore they don't get an adequate dietary intake. This means they are often sold into slavery, prostitution and used as child bribes. Women only own 1% of global property. Inequality There is a high disturbance of inequality between the rich and the poor. This is effectively based on the government policies and the control of multinationals. Family Distribution Often, families have to share and distribute land, it is continually divided between children. Therefore, the original amount that somebody once owned becomes smaller and smaller; it is less to live off of.

On the flip side, some families only give to one child. Meaning the others need to find work and earn a living independently. No Land Ownership Families who don't own land work hard for a small exchange. Therefore, making decisions to support family/self becomes difficult, especially when there is no guarantee to have regular employment.

No land also can mean that citizens cannot grow their own food to eat/sell. In a case where people have to get jobs outside of agriculture there can be a low income for long hours worked. In cases when land is constantly divided, there is a decreasing chance to earn to the optimum level. All family members may need to find other work to maintain a suitable living balance. This can also lead to poor agriculture practise's of farming which then leads to degradation of the land and again less production. Distribution War There are a loss of jobs due to war, therefore the jobs that were previously occupied no longer exist. War has a special consideration to Africa due to the civil war and the middle east. Government corruption and Government policies can cause unemployment as well. If a Government does not have a welfare system the people will be struggling to survive. The worker may need to rely on family/friends to help support their needs as well as others. This may also cause family members to get married at an early age and have children. Government Technology Due to the increase in technology, many will be out of work. Some technology can do the same things as a human. Therefore there is no need to employ somebody at a high expensive and who has the same capabilities. Citizens don't have enough money for healthy food, therefore causes malnutrition and other illnesses. This means people cannot perform to their potential standards at work- if they can work at all. Health Loans People may have to borrow money if they cannot afford to pay for health expenses and basic daily needs. Then they get in a cycle with money lenders and can't ever get in front. They probably cant afford to educate kids or continue own education. No work means that they cant afford medical supplies for the rest of the family. Some can't afford health care when woman are in labor.In extreme cases it can causes deaths and illnesses in children. Medical Expenses Life Expectancy People who cannot afford education, often live low quality lives. Their life expectancy is lower; 52 years old being an average age in Zimbabwe.

If they were educated they would earn more money, be able to pay health services and healthy foods, therefore live longer. Amount of Hungry Individuals Responsibility Government arrangements aren't always to the benefit of the people.

Out of $3, two thirds was squandered and even stolen from 1970-1980.

The Piarco Airport project entailed using 1.6 billion dollars, all of it was traced to an off shore bank.

According to the World Bank there were approximately $100,000,000 of losses due to corrupt activities in 2004. Drugs and Alcohol Citizen ease the pain of war, wrong government decisions (effecting them personally) by drinking and taking drugs. Instead of spending money on their child's education/health services , they spend money where it is unnecessary; the money is basically wasted. Discrimination Citizens are discriminated against certain groups. This means that certain people can gain benefits from health services, being educated and being fed. An effect of this is when bribery takes place.

Communities discriminate against each other because of their wealth, colour and social status. US Greg Mortenson Muhammad Yunus Bono (Paul Hewson) Solutions Report Card Goal Grade Comment Eradicate extreme poverty
and hunger. D World Bank: Although you have been working effectively and hard, the task requirements have not been met to all countries. In particular Western Asia, needs immediate care, as no progress has been made in that area. Currently, you have not accomplished your goals. However, I believe that in the near future they will be successfully executed. Whilst it is an achievement that only 1 citizen dies every 3.5 seconds, children still need attentive care to keep reducing this number. Achieve universal primary education. D World Bank: Overall, you have made steady development over the period, especially in Africa. There are currently less than 100 million children who don’t attend school, this should be improved, especially in Central Asia and Caucasus. Promote gender equality and empower women. C Wold Bank: You have enabled many young girls/women to have an education and this will help generations to come. There are approximately 96 females who attend school to every 100 males. In the next two years try to work harder to achieve your goals for Sub-Saharan Africa, Northern Africa, Western Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia and the Oceania. Well Done! Reduce child mortality. C World Bank: I am pleased with your work as the reduction to child mortality has been achieved globally. Whilst there is still work to go, you are in good stead to finish in 2015. One of your achievements is giving vaccines to the needy, through UNICEF. Each of 53 developing countries is estimated to reach their aims by two thirds. Great Job! Improve maternal health. D World Bank: You have shown steady work ethic. However, due to a lack of time I have seen you struggle to get everything completed. This could be due to the number of (two) sub goals there are. Next time, organising your ‘plan of attack’ thoroughly may prove better results. In baby deliveries there has been an increase in health expert attendance, from 42% to 53% over 10 years in the impoverished countries. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases. C World Bank: Your work has been good throughout this cause, as deaths caused by Malaria have decreased by20%. The general reduction of HIV/AIDS has been impressive; however the goals haven’t been fully completed. I’m sure with more hard work you could finish these goals to a high level within the time constraints. Ensure environmental sustainability. D World Bank:Your work has been good, however due to the slow improvements the world is still facing an environmental crisis due to factors such as habitat loss and species decimation. Sanitation negligence is still among 2.6 billion individuals and will require attentive care to offset the impact of environmental sustainability. Develop a global partnership for development. C World Bank: You have made steady development throughout this goal. Your $1.4 million alliance has proven to be a success as it helps with stopping child abuse. Great Job! Summary Comment:
World Bank: Overall, you have made good progress throughout the millennium goals. However, due to the high expectations of your goals, it is hard to accomplish so much in a short time frame. Your skills of organisation, communication and high level of hard work seem to be paying off. However, there is still a lot of work to go, but don’t give up. One of the highlights was promoting gender equality as this will not only help one woman but also the community around her. One of your downfalls has been to eradicate extreme hunger and poverty, as without food and money impoverished citizens cannot live a fulfilling life. Overall you have done a great job! Who is he? What is his Leadership role?
Muhammad Yunus is the creator of Grameen Bank in Bangladesh. He is the receiver of the 2006 Noble Peace Prize; an award which honours both Mr Yunus and the bank for helping societal and financial growth in Bangladesh. The Grameen Bank was established in 1983 and since then specialised in micro-credit. Approximately 7 million borrowers have access to the micro-credit finance facility. The majority (95%) of borrowers have been women/groups. Ninety per cent of the bank is owned by the borrowers, however, only 10% is owned by the government.

What do they do?
The Grameen bank specialises in giving poor citizens the opportunity to borrow a low proportion of money at low rates, in order to be debt free, this is called micro-credit. Previously, the mean loans for the Grameen bank were $100 in 2006. Impoverished public then get the benefits of being debt free. They can then grow food, own livestock, build a business. Children are educated and the communities can now live normal lives. Now the Grameen Bank is in 36,000 small towns, helping 2.1 million individuals/groups.

Whilst Mr Yunus created the Grameen bank there are also other Grameen programmes which aid the impoverished. These are:
• Grameen Bank (Micro-finance)
• Grameen Phone
• Grameen Foundation Scholarship
• Grameen Trust
• Grameen International Dialogue program
• Grameen Foundation Fellowship program
• Grameen Knitwear

Underpinning Philosophy
Muhammad Yunus believes that anybody can lead impoverished citizens out of poverty; it doesn’t need to be somebody who how holds significant power. He sees himself as an example of a person who does not in fact hold a lot of power as he was just an economics lecturer. However, he was able to use the power he had to make a change to the world. The suffering community also has the power to change their state of poverty, if they congregate together and protest against poverty to the leaders in power they will be successful.
Most poverty is the result of systems which are prejudicial. The impoverished can get out of poverty if the systems are fairer. Yunus states “But we have created a society that does not allow opportunities for those people to take care of themselves because we have denied them those opportunities.”
Dr Yunus made 16 decisions that borrowers need to obey. They are based to keep their families above the poverty line. The community keeps each other liable to make sure all decisions are adhered to.

Pros
Poverty cycles can stop by systems which are put in impoverished areas. There is not collateral needed to take out a loan. The Grameen banking system has positively affected many in poverty. ● Youth has been given 250 scholarships. ● Education is granted to children, as their parents can now afford schooling. ● Women especially hold more power in society. ● Obvious links to poverty are corruption, land ownership, gender inequality, bad health, poor education systems, unfair trade and unemployment. If all these links were to vanish, poverty would also disappear. ● It stops corrupt citizens taking advantage of the venerable as they now have money to put into their own businesses . Citizens recover their rate of debt by 98%. ● Initially the impoverished escape dept.

Cons

Some people may not pay back their loan as some citizens cannot afford to as their chain of debt continues. Most loans are for two periods which has been an interest rate of 20% per annumm. Loans aren't always used for growing small businesses but to provide families with basic needs. Therefore they don't have liable income/employment. Women receive priority over men; some men may be doing to right things for their family, however still struggling, but cannot take out a loan simply because they are male. The poor people are still poor because it takes a long to to be debt-free. Introduction Conclusion Who is he? What is his Leadership role?
Greg Mortenson is the creator of ‘Pennies for Peace’. Previously, he climbed the second highest mountain in the world after his sister died, to honour her in memory. Since his climbing trip in Pakistan, Greg has astounded many by launching and helping maintain 145 schools in Pakistan and Afghanistan, 2012. More than 64,000 children have a privilege of attending school. Greg’s aid organization called ‘Central Asia Institute’ focuses on building and helping schools. He has achieved many aspirations in his life. One of these is winning the ‘Star of Pakistan’ award in 2009, which is a high acknowledgement to recognise his efforts in Pakistan. He was nominated for the Noble Peace Prize in 2008-9. Mr Mortenson is a bestselling author of ‘Three Cups of Tea’ which discusses his life. It tells, in detail, what led him to helping the poor by promoting education and building many schools.

What do they do?
Greg Mortenson runs a non-profit charity called ‘Central Asia Institute’ (CAI) which relies heavily on donations from the public. The organisation received $200,000 from a donor in 2012, $100,000 of Nobel Peace Prize from American President, Barak Obama, and used $1,000,000 to build the business from Dr Hoerni. The organisation strives to provide children (especially girls) with education. After primary school, many children are awarded scholarships as they want to continue education, however, cannot afford the costs. CAI also endeavors to provide schools with highly trained teachers. However, in extremely impoverished areas some educators have partial knowledge.
Central Asia Institute has a main focus on schools. They also provide lacking towns with clean water, health care programs, and disaster relief. There is a Global Outreach program, Pennies for Peace Program, Literacy and Vocational centres for women.

Underpinning Philosophy
Greg Mortenson believes that girls have a huge impact and advantage when educated. Greg Mortenson wrote in Three Cups of Tea, “Educate a boy, and you educate an individual. Educate a girl, and you educate a community”, this creates the girl effect. This effects helps decrease the infant mortality rate, increase communication and to understand women’s rights.
Mortenson endeavours to build relationships with those in power such as political and religious leaders and also the community. Furthermore, the philosophy of Central Asia Institute is to empower the impoverished by using their own initiatives. This means that they will become powerful in their own community, helping and educating others to stop the atrocious cycle of poverty.
Three Cups of Tea is based around building relationships within the community to combat poverty. The first cup of tea is based on the stranger, the second is becoming the friend and the third cup is being family; this is initially how helping the poverty stricken operates.

Pros
The project educates both male and female, however has a higher specialised area in supporting girls/women. Moreover, once a woman is educated, she helps educate the entire community. They learn their own personal rights as well as rights of others; they learn good nutrition and effective child rearing practices.
After primary school, children complete high school, and then commence further education. This enables them to become qualified in a specified area resulting in higher paid jobs than an average person. This breaks through the poverty cycle by providing themselves and their family with adequate education, health care, food and water.
Not only are the impoverished being educated, but the wider community, globally. They learn about the needs of children in Pakistan and Afghanistan, therefore donate money to the CAI.
Education is an antidote for war and as war is a huge factor in poverty it is fighting it in several ways at once.

Cons
CAI relies heavily on donor support to survive being a charity.
Teachers who have partial knowledge will only pass on partial knowledge to students.
Establishing/Building schools can bring up controversy to the leaders in power. The Taliban has ruined one school, as some leaders who hold significant power are opposed to education. Negative effects include children’s ability to learn as there are now inadequate resources such as books, pens, pencil and paper.
Work in a very small part of the world becomes difficult.
There have been accusations of financial mismanagement, proven to be incorrect, but when you are successful some people will try to take you down Poverty is widely known in developing countries that have two main levels. These are relative poverty and absolute poverty. Furthermore, the level of poverty is determined by the poverty line, anything below the line is classed as relative or absolute poverty which is determined by the extent of paucity of food, water, education and healthcare. Moreover, poverty is caused by many fatal factors. Some of these are corruption, bad health services, unfair trade, no education, unemployment, gender inequality and land rights. Additionally, if causes of poverty were broken, poverty wouldn’t exist. Therefore, there are 8 Millennium Goals in place to eradicate areas of poverty by 2015. Consequently, a report card has been written to World Bank to determine its grades and predicting if it will reach targeted goals by 2015. Also studied are three influential citizens who include Bono (Paul Hewson), Muhammad Yunus and Greg Mortenson. They hold significant poverty- braking power and have created organisations/charities to overcome this global issue. Initially, poverty is slowly decreasing due to these efforts. Poverty-Bono, Grameen or Mortenson; Whose Strategy has the Most to Offer in Fighting Poverty?

Who is he? What is his Leadership role?
Bono joined the Irish band, U2, in 1976, while he was still in secondary education. U2 became a popular band with many albums that reached the top of American song charts. Bono uses his celebrity endorsement to raise awareness and support the needy. Many of his songs have been written based upon religion and political issues. His main focus is on arrears release, AIDS and global poverty.
Many of Bono’s achievements are being chosen for the Noble Peace Prize on many accounts, being prized Knight by Queen Elizabeth II of England. He has accumulated many other awards for his fine talent and compassionate efforts towards the impoverished. He was also awarded ‘Time Magazines person of the year’ in 2005.
What do they do?
Bono works tirelessly to educate wealthy citizens about global poverty through many conferences, protesting and YouTube videos. His organisation called ONE helps with campaigning against poverty and currently has 3 million members. Bono has accepted $64 000,000 from several charity organisations to help poverty. Bono convinces people to sign petitions against poverty in developing countries as he believes citizen’s voices are important to change politics. Hence as to why he has written petitions to world leaders.
Debt relief is improving in Africa as $107 billion has been secured. This has effectively increased the amount of children in schools with 42 million extra students. Prescriptions have been given to almost 4 million African which helped save their lives. As African exports increase to the United States, so does the African employment increase of 300,000 more jobs. Approximately, $450,000,000 was given to debt relief for the Haiti earthquake. All of these were made possible through the efforts of Bono and the ONE organisation.

Some of Organisations which Bono has conducted are:
• DATA (Debt AIDS Trade)
• EDUN- Clothing Brand, with products made in Africa to support trade
Below are only 2 of 5 pages of Campaigns from the ONE website:
• Enough Food For Everyone IF
• Tell world leaders to step up the fight against world poverty
• Thrive
• Lifesaver of the century
• Trillion Dollar Scandal
• Hungry No More
• IMF- Fairness Required
• Save 4 million children’s lives in 5 years
• Support Transparency
• The ONE Baby Protest
• Call on the IMF to freeze Pakistan’s debt
• HAPPY BIRTHDAY, Nelson Mandela!
• Make education for all a reality
• 3.5 million healthcare workers needed
• Make Bankers Give Back
• Hurl Berl
• Act for Mums
• One Vote 2010
• Drop Haitian Debt
• Copenhagen

Underpinning Philosophy
Bono is an incredibly focussed activist who has great power to changing the world, along with other political and world leaders. He believes that global leaders can change the world and the effects of poverty. Celebrities and leaders (political/religious) have significant power and can impact the world either positively or negatively. One of Bono’s endeavours is to get numerous petitions signed, one for HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases which is to written world leaders. ONE, 2013 states “We hold leaders into account for the commitments they have made to fight extreme poverty”. This is clear evidence that Bono’s underlying philosophy is based on changing the world with global influential people; these include political and religious leaders and celebrities.
Consequently, young citizens have a major impact towards changing the world. As U2 has captured mainly the audience of young people, Bono believes that they have the capacity to change poverty into thriving countries. Furthermore, political leaders fear ‘swing voters’ as they are obligated to listen to ‘swingers’ voices.



Pros
Endorsement of bands, U2 in particular can motivate others to help eradicate poverty. Celebrities have huge impacts in the world. Therefore, by supporting the eradication of global poverty, others want to ‘be like them.’ Consequently, they may support charities, sponsor a child or create their own organisations.
ONE pressures Governments to make better choices (law systems, public needs) or to donate money to poor countries. If Governing is undertaken incorruptly then countries would have fairer practises and benefiting services (health services, benefits; Centre Link).
The ONE organisation increases public knowledge by campaigning and conference meetings. If people know more about it, the more they want to facilitate others needs.
Bono’s focus is on some of the Millennium Goals such as to combat HIV/AIDS, support education, and enable access to health services and to eradicate hunger.
ONE has many members who join the fight in reducing poverty.


Cons
Accusations have been made to attack good deeds. Outrage has been known to ONE as there were donations of $14,993,873. However, only $184,732 was given to the needy. Consequently the rest (over $8, 000,000) went to ONE employee’s. This was regarded as a scandalous case to some.
Saving poor people are often a result of corrupt Governments and political leaders. Therefore, money given to them may not be used to accommodate the needs of impoverished communities.
The poor will not learn the skills to recover from debts by themselves and will always rely on public AID for support, thus, struggling to eliminate extreme poverty. To conclude, poverty is an ongoing issue that has been a struggle to eliminate as it has many interconnecting factors. However, many activists have been working tirelessly to abolish the destruction poverty causes. In particular, Greg Mortenson, Bono and Muhammad Yunus, all have various methods of approaching poverty. However, personally, the Bono project seems to be preferable as it focu on the basic needs of the poor. It also uses the power of everday people to make he change by influencing those in leadership. Opposed to Greg’s organisation and Mr Yunus bank which focus on education and getting out of debt. Consequently, there is nothing to suggest that one is better than the other. In essence, all have equal possibilities to fight off poverty, in their own ways. Furthermore, all solutions are able to break the cycle and provide the ability to work on other factors so that people don't fall back into extreme poverty. To conclude, it is evident that all solutions offer equal ability in fighting off poverty. The complexity of poverty has interconnecting factors, in which each solution targets a different section. The Millennium goals also support battling poverty. Poverty not only effects people, but also surrounding countries. Resultantly, a lot of money is donated to aid impoverished nations. Once again, if everybody supported breaking the cycle of poverty and provide the ability to work on other factors so that people don't fall back into extreme poverty, the world would be a better place.
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