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Intro to General Psychology, Part One

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Shelby Linstrom

on 1 September 2016

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Transcript of Intro to General Psychology, Part One

General Psychology Foundations
Freeman M. Chakara
PsyD, ABPP-CN

Professor, Clinical Neuropsychologist
Objective
Define psychology & its components
Basic Introduction to Psychology
Definition: scientific study of (1)
behavior
and (2)
mental processes
and how they (1 & 2) affect the individual’s (a)
physical state
, (b)
mental state
and (c) environment; thus, this is a study of
internal
processes (thoughts, motivations, attitudes, etc) and
external
behaviors.
Components of Psychology
1. Science:
systematically
(a) observe, (b) describe, (c) predict, and (d) explain behavior.
Description:
What is happening? ex. Grandma seems to be having some memory problems.
Explanation:
Why is it happening? ex. She might have dementia.
Prediction:
Will it happen again? ex. Her memory might worsen.
Control:
How can it be changed? Medications may slow the decline.
3. Mental Processes
Thoughts, feelings, and motives that are experienced privately; these processes
are unobservable
(e.g., delusional thoughts during a psychotic break)

4. Environment
Environment:
context
in which behavior & mental processes occur (e.g., drug induced hallucinations vs. hallucinations from a psychotic disorder - Andrea Yates)

Traditional Approaches To
The Study of Psychology
1. Historicism: tendency to focus on psychology's
past accomplishments
(e.g., exclusive focus on early Freudian psychoanalytic concepts to the neglect of neuroscience)
2. Presentism
Emphasis is on
current trends
in the enterprise of psychology (e.g., preoccupation with virtual reality therapy at the expense of early behavioral approaches)
3. There are benefits from many sources of information; both approaches are equally helpful - both/and,
not either/or...
Forces That Have Shaped Psychology
A. Philosophical
1.
Plato's rationalism
:

innate knowledge
discovered through
reason
.
2.
Aristotle's empiricism
:
sensory
experience
is the chief source of
knowledge
.
3.

Bacon's skepticism
:

question
, systematic observation, &
verified
by others. ..
“the human understanding is like a false mirror which, receiving rays irregularly, distorts and discolors the nature of things by mingling its own nature with it.”
4.

Locke's tabula rasa
:
born as a
blank slate
; life's experiences scripted on you.
5.
St Augustine
:

tension between
voice of reason and passions of the heart.
Philosophy
Natural Science
Psychology
B. Scientific
1.
Structuralism:
Wundt & Titchener
Discovering basic elements/
structures to mental processes
3
dimensions of feeling
: a) pleasure/displeasure; b) tension/relaxation; c) excitement/depression
Introspection
was a common

method of study
(e.g., taste)
C. Contemporary Approaches
1. Cognitive behaviorism/learning:
thought, emotion & environment
modify behaviors.

D. Careers in Psychology
1.
Clinical
:
diagnosis and treatment
of psychological problems.
2.
Counseling
:
career and vocational
emphasis in general treatment setting.
3.
Experimental
: conduct
research
, usually in
laboratory
settings.
2. Functionalism: William James
Functions of mind/behavior in adapting to environment.
Mind is flexible and adaptable in response to
stream of consciousness
(constant change and flow of information)
3. Behaviorism: Pavlov, Watson, Skinner, Thorndike
Emphasis on
observable behavior
De-emphasis of invisible/intangible
Conditioning studies
as evidence
2. Dynamic
Role of
unconscious processes
, conflicts, and early family issues (Sigmund Freud).
3. Humanistic
People are basically
good
; all they need is an
opportunity to grow
(Carl Rogers).
4. Neuroscience
Central Nervous System (CNS)
is key to understanding thought, behavior, & feelings

5. Sociocultural
Gender, ethnicity, and culture as focal points.
a. Gender:
sociocultural dimension
of being male or female (sex is biology).

b. Ethnicity:
cultural heritage
; national features; race; religion; language

c. Culture:
behavior patterns
,
beliefs
, etc (music, dress, diet, and ceremonies).
4.
Neuropsychology
: study
brain related
cognitive and behavioral problems.

5.
School
: learning and
academic-related
adjustment issues (no doctorate required)

6.
Industrial/Organizational
:
workplace
relationship and
business
productivity issues.
7.
Forensic
: psychological issues in
legal settings
(e.g., insanity defense)
8.
Sports
: psychological principles in
sport
performance and enjoyment.
9.
Health
: psychological and
lifestyle
factors in health and
health delivery
settings.
10.
Cross Cultural
: role of culture in understanding thoughts, emotions, and behaviors
NOTE:
Psychologists
:
Usually require a doctoral degree (Ph.D., Psy.D., Ed.D.)
In most cases they do not prescribe medications; this role is typically left to psychiatrists (D.O/M.D.)
Settings In Which Psychologists Work
Jobs With An Undergraduate Degree in Psychology
Social/Human Services
case worker
youth counselor
employment counselor
fund-raising specialist
alumni affairs coordinator
mental health aide
parent educator
drug abuse counselor
Jobs With An Undergraduate Degree In Psychology
Research
research assistant
trainee for product research companies
marketing researcher
grant and report writer
information specialist/researcher
mental health aide
research analyst
statistical assistant
Jobs With An Undergraduate Degree in Psychology
Business
personnel administrator
public relations
sales representative
admissions recruiter
textbook representative
advertising
insurance agent
management trainee
retail sales management
loan officer
Psychiatrist, Psychologist, and Other Professionals
Figure 1.2 (a) There are many different work settings for psychologists. Although not obvious from the chart, many psychologists work in more than one setting. For example, a
clinical psychologist
may work in a hospital setting as well as teaching at a university or college. (b) This pie chart shows the specialty areas of psychologists who recently received their doctorates.
Note: Due to rounding, percentages may not total to 100 percent.
(a) National Science Foundation/Science Resources Statistics. 2001 Survey of Doctorate Recipients.
http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/nsf03310pdf/tabl4.pdf
(b) National Science Foundation. Division of Science Resource Statistics. Science & Engineering Doctorate Awards. 2003, NSF 05-300. Project Officer, Joan 5. Burrelli (Arlington, VA 2004).
http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/nsf05300/pdf/front.pdf.


Activity
that can be observed, recorded, and measured (e.g. tics in Tourette's Disorder - watch the video clip below to see an example)
2. Behavior
Full transcript