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Transcript of Literary Stylistics
What is Stylistics?
- the science which explores how readers interact with the language of (mainly literary) texts in order to explain how we understand, and are affected by texts when we read them.
Two Types of Stylistics
Elements of Poem Analysis
- scientific study of style, which can be viewed in several ways.
- study of the linguistic features of a literary text; phonological, lexical, and syntactical; which directly affects the meaning of an utterance.
- The variety in stylistics is due to the main influences of linguistics & literary.
• established methods of close reading or practical criticism of texts, the procedures of literary stylistics remain traditional in character in spite of development in literary theory (e.g. post - structuralism) which challenge assumptions about the role of language in depicting literary realities .
• Makes up a part of the theory of literature and poetics
• Centers on peculiarities of literary genre, literary trend, means of artistic expressiveness, image system;
• Takes into account the biography of the author, her/his aesthetic values and world perception; her/his individual use of language means and artistic mastery;
• Resorts to the knowledge of the history of literature in the process of interpretation.
Poem can be analyzed generally by terms of:
5 Steps on How to Read a Poem
Why Do We Have To Analyze Everything????
•Talking about experiences enhances our enjoyment of them
•Talking about experiences involves the search for meaning which increases our understanding of them •Because Socrates said so: "The life which is unexamined is not worth living."
Should i stop?
Should i drop?
My heart's gonna pop,
I mess, i thought i was on top.
I hoped this could last
But i know i'm only in love with the past
The past, that was once a blast
A blast that for a second only last.
You moved on
I'm left with a scar to learn on
I was wrong to say goodbye
It was hopeless, to have you i lied.
Thank you for listening !!!
Give yourself a lot of time to read the poem several times.
Read the poem aloud several times, noting its structure, meter, recurring images or
themes, rhyme scheme-- anything and everything which creates an effect
Paraphrase the poem: make sure you understand the language of the poem.
Poetry, particularly from other time periods, often contains confusing syntax or
vocabulary. Put into your own words those lines or phrases which are especially difficult. Resist the
temptation to brush over the lines or phrases which seem unintelligible; these can be the most crucial
parts of the poem. The Oxford English Dictionary is a good resource for defining difficult vocabulary.
3) Read the poem again and jot down notes on the sheet to note every observation, question, or feeling
you get from the poem as you read.
Pay special attention to how the poem begins and ends.
4) Now, use your notes as entry points to begin your investigation and analysis of the poem.
Ask yourself what elements in the poem lead you to the particular observation and how the poet
achieves this effect.
5) Always keep in mind that the poet uses poetic devices to achieve a particular effect.
Breaking up the poem into formal poetic components enhances your understanding of the poem’s
overall theme, tone, and/or general purpose. In other words, use form to understand the content and
create a thesis about the poem.
Questions for Poetry Analysis
Definition of Terms:
having a lot of knowledge about literature : known for reading or writing books
Analysis means literally picking a poem apart--looking at elements such as imagery, metaphor, poetic language, rhyme scheme, and so on--in order to see how they all work together to produce the poem's meaning. By looking at a poem in terms of its elements, one decodes the poem. This guide is to help readers learn what to look for and what questions to ask in decoding a poem.
Poetry goes beyond the rhyming of words. The object of writing a poem is usually to make a very complicated statement using as few words as possible; as Laurence Perrine says, poetry "may be defined as a kind of language that says more and says it more intensely than does ordinary language". Thus every word and stanza is packed with meanings. Poetic language could be said to have muscle because, in a sense, it is powerful.
The term "voice" in fiction writing actually has two very different meanings:
- Voice is the author's style, the quality that makes his or her writing unique, and which conveys the author's attitude, personality, and character; or
- Voice is the characteristic speech and thought patterns of the narrator of a work of fiction. Because voice has so much to do with the reader's experience of a work of literature, it is one of the most important elements of a piece of writing.
- Who is the speaker?
-What point of view is the speaker?
- Is the speaker involved in the action or reflection of the poem?
- What perspective (social, intellectual, political) does the speaker show?
-The voice and perspective of the speaker tells of what world the poem is in.
The pattern of organization of a poem.
- What happens in the story, play, or poem?
- What kind(s) of conflict do you see in the work of literature?
- What do the different parts of the literature contribute to the whole structure?
the author’s attempt to create a mental picture (or reference point) in the mind of the reader. Remember, though the most immediate forms of imagery are visual, strong and effective imagery can be used to invoke an emotional, sensational (taste, touch, smell etc) or even physical response.
- What images does the poem use; the physical setting or metaphors used?
- Are there any striking examples of figurative language used? - - What things are compared (similes, metaphors, personifications or symbols) in the poem?
the place or location of the action. The setting provides the historical and cultural context for characters. It often can symbolize the emotional state of characters.
- When and where did the story take place?
- Are there historical or cultural events that happened at the same time or place as the story?
- Is the author of the literature making connections between the literary work and real-life?
the use of words to express meaning beyond the literal meaning of the words themselves
= Metaphor - contrasting to seemingly unalike things to enhance the meaning of a situation or theme without using like or as.
EX: You are the sunshine of my life.
= Simile - contrasting to seemingly unalike things to enhance the meaning of a situation or theme using like or as.
EX: What happens to a dream deferred, does it dry up like a raisin in the sun
= Hyperbole - exaggeration
EX: I have a million things to do today.
= Personification - giving non-human objects human characteristics
EX: America has thrown her hat into the ring, and will be joining forces with the British.
the implied attitude towards the subject of the poem. Is it hopeful, pessimistic, dreary, worried? A poet conveys tone by combining all of the elements listed above to create a precise impression on the reader.
- What is the author’s attitude toward the subject area?
- How does the tone affect the meaning of the literature?
when an object is meant to be representative of something or an idea greater than the object itself.
Cross - representative of Christ or Christianity
Bald Eagle - America or Patriotism
Owl - wisdom or knowledge
Yellow - implies cowardice or rot
- What characters or objects are symbolic (stand for other things)? For example,
a rose may stand for love, and a thorn may stand for a painful aspect of love.
LET'S PRACTICE !!!
Answer each of the following questions to the best of your ability.
1. The title of this poem is?
2. It was written by?
3. This poem is written in the __(1st or 3rd ) person point of view.
4. Who is the speaker?
5. What is the basic situation?
6. What is the poem’s setting?
7. Are there conflicts in the poem? If so, what are they?
8. What kind(s) of imagery do you see most often in the poem? Give some examples.
9. Does the poem have meter? If so, what is it?
10. Does your poem have a rhyme scheme? If so, what is it?
11. What other sound devices (alliteration, assonance, onomatopoeia) have been included by the poet? Give examples of each.
12. What figures of speech are included ( metaphor, simile, personification, hyperbole)? Include examples and explain the effect each one has on
your understanding and appreciation of the poem.
13. What is the mood of this poem? Explain your answer.
15. What is the author’s tone (his or her attitude toward the subject?
16. Explain the significance of the poem’s title.
17. Write a paragraph in which you briefly summarize the poem.
Based on your analysis, what do you think is the author’s purpose in writing this
poem? That is, what universal truth does he/she want to share with his/her readers