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Transcript of Conveyor Belt
The Industrial Revolution changed the way things were made as new machines invented in the 1700s and 1800s meant it was possible to mass produce goods in factories. Starting in Britain and spreading through Europe and North America, a period of rapid social and economic change began, with widespread URBANIZATION.
Thursday, March 13, 2014
Vol XCIII, No. 311
Conveyor Belt Invented
Conveyor Belt History!
Conveyor Belt Development!
Conveyor Belt Development!
A conveyor belt consists of two or more pulleys, with a continuous loop of material that rotates about them. One or both of the pulleys are powered, moving the belt and material on the belt forward. The powered pulley is called the drive pulley while the unpowered pulley is called the idler. There are two main industrial classes of the conveyor belts; Those in general material handling such as those moving boxes along inside a factory and bulk material handling such as those used to transport industrial and agricultural materials, such as grain, coal, ores, fines and lumps material.
Today there are different types of conveyor belts that have been created for conveying different kinds of materials available in PVC and rubber materials. The belts consist of one or more layers of material. They can be made out of rubber. Many belts in general material handling have two layers. An under layer of material to provide liner strength and shape called a carcass and an over layer called the cover. The carcass is often a woven fabric having a warp and weft. The most common carcass materials are polyester, nylon and cotton. The cover is often various rubber or plastic compounds specified by use of the belt.
At the beginning of the present century, though humorists aimed their barbs at the figure of the motorist and the havoc he wrought among chickens, no family of substance failed to seek prestige by acquiring a car of some famous make. The figure of the chauffeur, the absolute master of his vehicle, the only one capable of understanding its mysteries and of getting it moving again after a breakdown, became a typical symbol of upper class living. The general public admired him silently, but with some distrust; innovations are slow to be accepted. In Britain a law was passed in the very early years requiring that every motor car should be preceded by a messenger on foot carrying a red flag to warn the local inhabitants of the impending danger. The monks of the great St Bernard Refuge showed admirable enterprise in buying a lorry, but the hostility of the people in the valley was such that they had to resign themselves to having it drawn by horses and using it like any other cart. In 1895, when the first motor car driven by Cleto Brema reached Rome, a town committee organized to celebration ball.
In short, in a mixed atmosphere of noisy rejoicing and suspicion, the motor car remained an aristocratic, almost a feudal, phenomenon. Several years had still to elapse before it profoundly affected the everyday life of the average citizen and brought about the most important industrial development of the first half of this century, the conveyor belt production system. An early example at the very beginning of the twentieth century is provided by the Chicago slaughter houses, where the preparation of pork meat was effected by means of an overhead conveyor carrying the carcass over a fixed course, along which a number of employees each performed a particular operation, designed in such a way as to rationalise the working process as much as possible.
No history of the last century, or of the current one, would be complete without a history of the industrial conveyor belt. While conveyor belts have been in service since at least the dawn of the Industrial Revolution in England (the first such belts were made from leather or canvas and served as flimsy, short distance transportation systems for sacks of grain,) the scale and scope of their application continued to expand. By the turn of the 20th century, conveyor belts were being used to unload materials of significant weight things like lumber and wooden shingles from out of railcars in Northern cities such as Minneapolis. With the discovery of electricity enabled, it was only a matter of time before the first automated roller conveyor was used for automotive production by none other than Henry Ford.
By the mid 1920s, conveyor belts were a boomtown industry. The developed nations in Europe and North America all strove to produce goods at a faster and more accurate rate than their competitors. Those who dwelt in the realm of hand crafted or conventionally assembled products were caught off guard and left in the wake of the Modern Era. During the Second World War, assembly lines became something of a national icon in America, in that they were used to churn out seemingly endless numbers of tanks, trucks, jeeps, fighters and bombers for the Allied war effort against the Axis powers. The city of Detroit, birthplace of the Ford Motor Co. And the automotive assembly line, earned itself the new distinction as the Arsenal of Democracy on account of the sheer quantities of armaments it produced for American and Allied armies.
About the Conveyor Belt and how it works
The Conveyor Belt changed the faces of the Industrial Economy around the world. Today, it has applicable uses in countless industries, such as transportation and food services.
A brief history of the conveyor belt
The development of the conveyor belt P2
The development of the conveyor belt P1
Conveyor Belt Development!
But the impulse towards belt production in the motor industry was given by Henry Ford, who as early as 1892 had displayed an interest in the new transport medium. In 1903 he founded the Ford Motor Company, which in 1909 began to produce the famous Model T vehicle. The fifteen million units of Ford's Model T, mass produced on the belt principle between 1909 and 1927, constitute a turning point in the history of technology. Thanks mainly to the use of vanadium steel, this car was lighter than its predecessors, while series production reduced the cost, transforming it from a luxury product into an ordinary consumer article. The Ford works represent the first large scale application of the production principles worked out by the American Taylor, and known as Taylorism. Each moment in the production cycle is analytically studied and then coordinated with all the others so as to eliminate any waste of time and reduce manufacturing costs to a minimum. At the same time Ford brought into being the first gigantic example of a vertical cartel.
The development of the conveyor belt P3
In 1892, Thomas Robins began a seris of invention which let to the development of a Conveyor belt used for carrying coal, ores and other products. In 1901, Sandvik invented and started the production of steel conveyor belts. In 1905 Richard Sutcliffe invented the first conveyor belts for use in coal mines which revolutionized the mining industry. In 1913, Henry Ford introduced conveyor belt assembly lines at Ford Motor Company's Highland park, Michigan factory. In 1972, the French society REI created in New Caledonia the then longest straight belt conveyor in the world, at a length of 13.8 km. Hyacynthe Marcel Bocchetti was the concept designer. In 1957, the B.F. Goodrich Company patented a conveyor belt that it went on to produce as the Turnover Conveyor Belt System. Incorporating a half twist, it had the advantage over conventional belts of a longer life because it could expose all of it's surface area to wear and tear. Mobius strip belts are no longer manufactured because untwisted modern belts can be made more durable by constructing then from several layers of different materials. In 1970, Intralox, a Louisiana based company, registered the first patent for all plastic, modular belting.
Covers can b made from more exotic materials for unusual applications such as silicone for heat or gum rubber when traction is essential. Material flowing over the belt may be weighed in transit using a belt weigher. Belts with regular spaced partitions, known as elevator belts, are used for transporting loose materials up steep inclines. Conveyor Belts are used in self unloading bulk freighters and in live bottom trucks. Conveyor technology is also used in conveyor transport such as moving sidewalk or escalators, as well as on many manufacturing assembly lines. Stores often have conveyor belts at the checkout counter to move shopping items. Ski areas also use conveyor belts to transport skiers up the hill. A wide variety of related conveying machines are available, different as regards principle of operation, means and direction of conveyance, including screw conveyors, vibrating conveyors, pneumatic conveyors, the moving floor system, which uses reciprocating slats to move cargo, and roller conveyors system, which uses a series of powered rollers to convey boxes or pallets.
In addition to the motor works the company possesses its own ion and coal mines, railways and distribution networks so that the whole operation, from the raw materials to the finished product sold to the customer, remains under the company's control. On the financial plane, Ford took steps to free himself of the need for bank credits. The profits were ploughed back into the company, which thus became self financing and self sufficient.
This is the phenomenon which has become known as Fordism. A new aspect of the modern world, which in a technically advanced society recreated a closed structure, very similar in certain ways to the economic institutions of the Middle Ages. Henry Ford was the sovereign of this empire, a sovereign paternalistically concerned for the welfare of his subjects. Ford's wages were the highest in the United States, but the trade unions were fiercely opposed to it.
Belt productions radically altered the nature of the work and the status of the worker. It marked the final eclipse of craftsmanship, while the individual was inducted into a perfect, ordered, system guaranteeing him economic security. But man was reduced to the status of an automaton repeating the same operations for hours on end. Charlie Chaplin's hero In Modern Times.
Henry Ford said that it must have been on April 1st 1913 that the first experiments with belt production were undertaken in his factory. He pointed out that previously, when the entire production process was carried out by a single worker, one man, in a working day of nine hours, produced approximately twenty seven magnetos, which meant that he spent about twenty minutes on each. Later his work was subdivided into twenty nine different tasks, which reduced production time to thirteen minutes, ten seconds. In 1914 the belt was raised eight inches. More research into the working rate helped to reduce the period further to five minutes. Briefly, the result was that thanks to scientific research a factory hand was able to undertake four times as much work as he had been capable of performing only a few years before. The assembly of the engine, which had previously been carried out by a single worker, was subdivided into forty eight single operations, the result being that the amount of work performed increased threefold. The right speed was worked out for each phase of the assembly process. For instance the chassis assembly belt was made to move at six feet per minute, the assembly belt for the front axle at 148 inches per minute. As the assembly of the chassis involved forty five different operations, the same number of working stations was provided. Some workers undertook only one or two small operations, others a greater number. The operative whose task it was to put a part in its right place did not secure it and the part itself was secured by others, sometimes only after many other operations. The workman inserting the bolt did not also put the nut in place. The worker adding the nut was not the one screwing it up. At operation No. 34, the new engine was supplied with petrol, at operation 44 the radiator was filled with water, at operation 45 the complete vehicle went out that exactly the same criteria were adopted in assembling the engine. In October 1913 the construction of an engine required nine and nine tenths working hours. Six months later, thanks to the introduction of moving belt assemblies, the period had been reduced to five hours fourteen fifteenths. In Ford's factory every single part moved. It passed along huge belts or rollers or fell through gravity. The materials were taken where they were required by means of dollies and saddles, making use of partly dismantled Ford chassis, which were so mobile and handy that they could be moved up and down in any passageway. No worker had to drag or carry anything, thanks to an appropriate transport department. At first cars were built in a single factory. Subsequently the manufacture of single parts was started and various shops set up, each of which produced one particular part. Each shop was a small factory on its own. The piece was brought in either in the form of raw material or as a casting, was treated on a set of machines or subjected to heated processes and left the shop as a finished product. Ford admitted that he had hardly thought so extreme and rigorous a subdivision of the work possible, but with the increase in production and in the number of separate workshops, his works ceased to be a factory manufacturing cars and became a factory making automobile parts.