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Waves and Sounds

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Jada Berthoumieux

on 3 April 2013

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Transcript of Waves and Sounds

By: Jada Berthoumieux Waves and Sound Prezi Project Breaking the Sound Barrier What does it mean? Echolocation How does it work? The Doppler Effect What is it? The Human Ear 1. Funnels sound waves (Pinna).
2. Ear Drum- thin membrane that vibrates when sound waves hit it.
3. Hammer, Anvil, and Stirrup- 3 tiny bones that pass vibrations along.
4. Thin membranes are on the cochlea. The hairs vibrates when the stirrup shakes.
5. Cochlea- snail shaped container that holds fluid and hair cells.
6. Auditory Nerve- converts hair cells swaying into electrical impulses and sends the impulses to the brain.
7. Eustachian Tube- relieves pressure.
8. Semi-Circular Canals- regulates your balance. Properties of Waves Amplitude The Four Wave Interactions Reflection occurs when waves strike a barrier and bounce off.
Every type of wave can be reflected(including water, sound, and light waves).
Also known as echoes.
Light waves that are reflected off an object allows you to see that object. The Four Types of Waves Mechanical Waves: Fin Requires a medium.
An example is "sound". Electromagnetic Waves It's Abbreviation is "EM".
Does not require a medium.
An example is "light". Transverse Waves Particles vibrates perpendicular to wave direction.
An example is "light". Longitudinal Waves Particles vibrate parallel to wave direction.
An example is "sound". Reflection Refraction Refraction occurs when waves bend while passing an angle from one medium to another(due to a change in speed).
The speed of a wave changes when a wave is refracted. Diffraction Constructive: Occurs when the resulting wave's amplitude is BIGGER. Diffraction occurs when two waves overlap.
The amount of diffraction a wave experiences depends on its wavelength and the size of the barrier or opening the wave encounters. Destructive: Occurs when the resulting wave's amplitude is SMALLER. Interference Interference is the result of two or more waves overlapping. Constructive: Increases amplitude.
Occurs when the crests of one wave overlap the crests of another wave or waves.
The troughs of the waves also overlap. Destructive: Decreases amplitude.
Occurs when the crests of one wave and the troughs of another wave overlap. The resulting wave has a smaller amplitude than the original waves had. Amplitude is the maximum distance a wave vibrates from its rest position.
It is related to the height of a wave.
The rest position of amplitude is where the particles stay when there isn't disturbances.
The larger the amplitude is, the taller the wave is and the more energy carried. Frequency Frequency is the number of waves produced in a given time.
If a wave is moved quickly, it produces a large number of waves. If a wave is moved slowly, it produces a small number of waves.
Is counted by either the amount of crests or the number of troughs that pass a point in a certain amount of time.
If measuring the frequency of a longitudinal wave, you would count the number of compressions or rarefactions.
Expressed in hertz(Hz). One hertz equals one wave per second(1 Hz = 1/s).
The frequency of a wave is related to wavelength.
Higher frequency means more energy; lower frequency means less energy. Wavelength Wavelength is the distance between any two adjacent crests or compressions in a series of waves.
The distance between two adjacent troughs or rarefactions is also considered wavelength.
Also, the wavelength can be measured from any point on one wave to the corresponding point on the next wave. Wave Speed Wave speed is the speed at which a wave travels.
Wave speed can be found by measuring the distance a single crest or compression traveling at a given amount of time.
The speed of the wave depends on the medium at which the wave is traveling.
Wave speed can be calculated using wavelength and frequency: The Doppler Effect is the apparent change in frequency of a sound due to movement or the listener or the source of the sound. How does it affect sound pitch? The Doppler Effect, affects sound pitch because the change of frequency of a sound, is depended on by pitch. If the movement, the listener, or the source of the sound is close by, the frequency and pitch is higher. If the movement, the listener, or the source of the sound is far away, the frequency and pitch is lower. When is it used? Where is it used? Echolocation is the process of using reflected sound waves to find food. The first way of when echolocation is used is when animals such as beluga whales, bats, dolphins, and some species of birds hunt food and detect objects in their paths.
The second way of when echolocation is used is when humans use echoes to locate objects underwater and underground by using sonar(sound navigation and ranging; a.k.a type of electronic echolocation.)
The third way of when echolocation is used is in a medical procedure called ultrasonography. Echoes are used to observe inside a patient's body without performing surgery. The first place where echolocation is used is in nature
The second place where echolocation is used is in outdoor activities or interactions such as fishing, and in mines (echolocation technology).
The third place where echolocation is used is in medical offices (ultasonography). Breaking the Sound Barrier means that sound waves compress closer and closer together to accelerate the speed of sound.
It happens when the an object (that is breaking the sound barrier) reaches the speed of sound and the sound waves from the front combine by constructive interference. This causes a high- density compression(the sound barrier).
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