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Chapter 1 Section 3 + 4
Transcript of Chapter 1 Section 3 + 4
Chapter 17 Section 3 & 4
Second in line to throne, brother died
Henry married his brother's wife, Catherine of Aragon, which was approved by the Pope
First peaceful transition of power after the War of Roses
Became King in 1509 & was a devout Catholic
against Luther's Reformation!
"Defender of the Faith"
The Catholic Reformation
millions remained true to the Catholic Church
had to reform itself to keep their followers
The Reformation was a culmination of events and circumstances, both here and abroad, which led to a seismic shift in the religious framework of this country. So what exactly happened, and what lasting impact did the Reformation have?
The Protestant Reformation
16th century schism within Western Christianity
Important people: Martin Luther and John Calvin
Started in 1517, Luther's Ninety-Five Theses
Broke away from the Roman Catholic Church, formed Protestant Church
What is Protestantism?
A major body of Christianity that denies the universal authority of the Pope.
What caused the Protestant Reformation?
Centuries of church corruption (indulgences)
Power vacuum in Europe
Black Death, Great Schism - people questioned the Church
Henry VIII - powerful monarchs questioned the Church's power
Jealousy of Church's wealth
Resentment of having to pay taxes to the Church
Humanism and Secularism
German monk, priest, professor
Didn't believe freedom from sin could be purchased
Believed the Bible was the only source of divinely revealed knowledge
Translated the Bible into the vernacular (German), which influenced the translation into English
His hymns influenced the development of singing in churches
Thought to have sparked the Reformation
Mainly protested against clerical abuses (overspending,
Luther's theses were printed and distributed all over Germany
Identify the Reformation and the impact it had on the world
Name two ways the Renaissance changed society.
Led to the founding of Christian Churches that didn't accept the pope's authority.
People could win salvation only by faith in God's gift of forgiveness. The Church taught that faith and "good works" were needed for salvation.
All Church teaching should be clearly based on the words of the Bible. Both the pope and Church traditions were false authorities.
All people with faith were equal. Therefore, people didn't need priests to interpret the Bible for them.
unity of western Christendom was destroyed
implemented the educational ideas of
Church did not recover the exercise of her former spiritual supremacy
- conservative response to the spread of Protestantism
the Catholic Church became stronger in her institutional structure
The Council of Trent
- internal reforms, clear listing of Church doctrines
In need of a male heir...
Catherine of Aragon
Was the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, the joint rulers of Spain. She was a very sought after princess. Catherine had multiple failed pregnancies, but had one child who survived,
Henry VIII turned against Catherine and wanted to divorce her. But, divorce was not allowed in the Catholic Church.
The Pope could
the marriage, IF there was proof that the marriage was never legal. In 1527, Henry asked the Pope to annul the marriage and he declined. Catherine was very popular in England and her home of Spain. The Pope didn't wish to upset her powerful nephew, Charles V.
The political/legal debate over their marriage went on for 6 years! Henry had multiple mistresses during this time, notably Mary Boleyn. Henry sent Catherine and her daughter Mary to separate lonely castles to live.
The Reformation Parliament
Henry secretly married Anne Boleyn (1533) because she was pregnant.
Called into session to pass laws to end the Pope's power in England.
The Reformation Parliament legalized Henry's divorce to Catherine, but this was not okay by the Catholic Church.
Act of Supremacy
- completed Henry's break with the Pope by calling on the people to take an oath recognizing the divorce and accepting Henry as the official head of England's Church.
The Boleyn Sisters:
Anne caught the King's attention but refused to be his mistress. "Queen or nothing!" For a while Anne continued to rise in position and toy with the King's emotions, convincing him to divorce Catherine.
Mary Boleyn was one of Henry's mistresses.
Anne came to court with her, attending to Queen Catherine!
Eventually, Anne becomes pregnant and is secretly married to King Henry. Anne gave birth to Princess
, a girl. She had two miscarriages afterwords and feared her fate, especially since the King had become fond of one of her ladies,
Anne never gave birth to a son...and she was not well-liked by the English people.
In 1536, Anne was charged with treason and beheaded at the Tower of London.
Henry's True Love
King Henry married Jane within 24 hours of Anne's execution. When she became pregnant, Henry treated her like a goddess, believing she was his first "true wife" and would give him a son. Prince
was born in 1537; Mary became his godmother and Elizabeth played a role in his christening ceremony.
Sadly, Jane died two weeks later. She was the only one of Henry's wives to be buried with him.
Jane Seymour came to court in service of Queen Catherine and then Anne Boleyn.
It is unknown how she felt when she became the object of the King's affection; she either didn't understand her role as a political pawn for her family OR made it seem that way due to fear of her fate as the King's lady.
The End of Henry VIII
Died in 1547
Each of his three surviving children had their chance at the throne
Only 10 years old
His uncle, Edward Seymour, became Lord Protector and sought to control England through Edward.
Henry had declared that Mary would be Queen if Edward died without male heirs.
Gained the throne in 1553
Wanted to re-connect England to the Catholic Church
She had many Protestants killed...nicknamed "Bloody Mary"
Gained the throne in 1558
Set up the Church of England, also known as the Anglican Church
This church would accept moderate Catholics and Protestants: Priests allowed to marry, English sermons, services to please Catholics
Elizabeth brought religious peace to England, but there were still people who disagreed with the Church of England.
1. Explain Calvin's Protestant teachings
2. Describe the beliefs of the other reformers and the role of women in the reformation
3. Trace reforms in the Catholic Church
4. Summarize the legacy of the Reformation
As Protestant reformers divided over beliefs, the Catholic Church made reforms. Queen Elizabeth I created the Anglican Church, which remained similar to the Catholic Church. But, Protestantism continued to grow throughout Europe.
started religious reform in Switzerland
started as a Catholic priest in Zurich
influenced by humanism and the reforms of Luther
1520: openly attacked Catholic Church...claimed that people should move towards a more personal faith and people should have more control over the Church
[1521-1531] Wars of Kappel: between Swiss Protestants and Catholics, Zwingli died.
- God already knows who will be saved.
law student, France
1536: wrote "Institutes of the Catholic Religion" - shared ideas about God, salvation and human nature. Summarized Protestant religious beliefs.
1. Humans are sinful by nature
2. God chooses a very few people to save, known as "the elect."
Calvin Leads the Reformation in Switzerland
THEOCRACY - a government controlled by religious leaders, Calvin's ideal government
in 1521, Calvin asked to lead Geneva, Switzerland
1. religion class
2. no bright clothing
3. no card games
if disobeyed, imprisoned, excommunicated, or banished
if preaching different religious views, could be burned at the stake
did believe people should enjoy God's gifts
seen as "model moral city"
"should not be forbidden to laugh, or to enjoy food, or to add new possessions to old" - Calvin
Scotland in 1559 to put Calvin's ideas to work
Each community church governed by a group of laymen called "elders" or "presbyters" - came to be known as Presbyterians
Scotland's official religion 1560s
Many Protestant churches today trace their roots to Calvin. Most have softened Calvin's teachings.
visited Geneva, Switzerland & returned to
followers in France
violence with Catholics
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre (August 24, 1572): Paris, Franc. Catholic mobs massacred around 12,000 Huguenots within six months
believed people should only be baptized
separation of church and state
Christians began to interpret the Bible in new ways
Catholics and Protestants believed they were radicals and threatened society
led to the Mennonites and Amish
influenced the Quakers and Baptists
Katherine Zell: scolded a minister for speaking ill of a reformer (Quote pg 498)
Katnerina von Bora: nun who fled the convent inspired by Luther teachings...married Luther
Marguerite of Navarre: protected Calvin from execution in France
Women's roles limited to the home and they were discouraged from being Church leaders
"God's highest gift on earth is a pious, cheerful, God-fearing, home-keeping wife" - Martin Luther
Ignatius of Loyola
founded new religious orders
wrote book "Spiritual Exercises": laid out a day-by-day plan of meditation, prayer, and study.
Society of Jesus
1. founded schools 2. convert non-christians to Catholicism 3. stop the spread of Protestantism
Pope Paul III
1. council of cardinals investigate indulgences and other abuses
2. approved the Jesuit order
3. used the Inquisition to seek heretics in papl territory
4. called for the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
1. Church's interpretation of the Bible was final
2. Needed faith and good works for salvation
3. Bible and Church tradition as powerful to guide life
4. Indulgences are valid
Pope Paul IV
Kept decrees from Council of Trent going
created the "Index of Forbidden Books"
Catholic Bishops ordered to burn offensive books
Religious & Social Effects:
Protestant churches flourished
new denominations developed
Council of Trent made Catholic Church more unified
education became more important
laid groundwork for Enlightenment
Catholic Church's authority declined
individual monarchs & states gained power - led to the development of nation-states
1600s: nation-states seek power through warfare, exploration, & expansion
Interpreting the Map - Page 63
Which European countries became mostly Protestant and which remained mostly Roman Catholic?
Judging from the way the religions were distributed, where would you expect religious conflicts to take place? EXPLAIN.