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Reference Manual


kayla wilson

on 10 January 2013

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Transcript of Reference Manual

A B C Dialog Boxes
A dialog box is a special window that appears when a program needs information before completing a task. D Each cell can take three types of data:
1.Labels- referred as text and cannot be manipulated mathematically
2.Values- a number, can be manipulated mathematically and can be changed to represent a whole number, decimal, percentage, or a dollar figure E F G • Hardware- any part of the computer that you can touch; (keyboards, mouse, etc...) H I J keyboard has 101 keys
Most keyboards have keys arranged in five groups
1.Alphanumeric keys
2.Numeric keypad
3.Function keys
4.Modifier keys
5.Cursor-movement keys K Label: The column and row headings or titles that begin with a letter or label indicator (""). Local Area Networks (LANs)
•A LAN is a network whose computers are located relatively near one another. The nodes are be connected by a cable. L The mouse is a pointing device. You use it to move a graphical pointer on screen and to issue commands without using the keyboard. Using the mouse involves six techniques.
6.Scroll M
A Network connects computers so they can communicate, exchange information, and share resources.
The main benefits of using a network are:
•Simultaneous Access to Data, Programs, and Devices
•Personal Communication
•Easier Backup N Operating system (OS) software is used for the computer (helps perform specific function):

-Some of the steps that the OS goes through when it is first turned on are: Power-on, self-test (POST.)

-Identifies hardware, checks memory.

-Checks all drives, keyboard, monitor, and printer

-Loads the OS program and desktop.

-Windows, the Macintosh OS, and UNIX. O The Processor P Query - View, find mode, type in the specific items that you are looking for in the various field headings click find and see your matches! Q R A sound card translates digital signals into analog signals that drive the speakers.
•With the right software, you can use your PC to edit sounds and create special sound effects S A trackball is like a mouse turned upside-down
A track pad is a touch-sensitive pad that provides the same functionality as a mouse The Shapes of Computers today T • User- People who use the computer U Vectors -
Mathematical equations describing the size, shape, thickness, position, colour and fill of a closed graphical shape of lines. V • Workstations are powerful single-user computers – product design/computer animation W X Y Zipdrive - a medium-capacity removable disk storage system Z 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 8 9 0 - Supercomputers are the most powerful computers NASA
- Mainframe computers can support thousands of users-Universities
- Minicomputer have multiple terminals and may be used by large companies- Wal-Mart
- Workstations are powerful single-user computers-product design/computer animation
- Microcomputer or Personal computer (PC) are used by people who need the power of a desktop system but also portability -The procedure that transforms raw data into useful information
-Called the central processing unit (CPU) or the “Brain.” -There are two types of memory (Ram and Rom)
-Random Access Memory (RAM) is volatile, meaning it holds data only when the power is on. -Read Only Memory (ROM) contains the basic system programs and it is not volatile. Input, Output, And Communication Devices -Input devices accept data and instructions from the user (Keyboard and Mouse)

-Output devises return processed data back to the user (Printer and Monitor)

-Communications devises perform both input and output, allowing computers to share information. (Modems) Operating system software • Factors Affecting Processing Speed
•A bus is a path between the computers of a computer, on which data and instructions travel. The wider the bus, the more data it can carry. More RAM = Better Performance!
• Address bus- path only from the CPU to the RAM memory
• Data bus- path from the CPU, memory (RAM and ROM), and everywhere else Formatting-
• Before a magnetic disk can be used, it must be formatted – a process that maps the disk’s surface and determines how data will be stored.
• During formatting, the drive creates circular tracks around the disk’s surface, and then divides each track into sectors. Terminology:
Spreadsheet - a computer program that provides a multi-columned workspace in which users can process and analyze large quantities of numerical data very quickly.
Examples: Home budgeting, bank account tracking, investment analysis, market research data, analyzing medical or scientific data, etc… SUM, AVERAGE, MAXIMUM, MINIMUM AND COUNT Row- horizontal cells AVERAGE function: A built-in formula or function used with range to find the average of the values in the range specified ALAN is a network whose computers are located relatively near one another. The nodes are be connected by a cable Application software tells the computer how to accomplish task Binary Numbers
•Computers processing is performed by transistors (switches) that can be on and off.
•All computer data is converted to a series of binary numbers – 1 and 0 (on = 1 and off = 0). Bits and Bytes
•A single unit of data—called a bit – has a value of either 1 or 0. A bit is the smallest unit of data a computer can use.
•Eight bits make up one byte. A byte can store one alphanumeric character Building a Spreadsheet
1.Type the title of the spreadsheet
2.Type the column headings
3.Type the row headings
4.Enter the formulas
5.Enter the columns/rows Complete computer system includes four distinct parts:
-Hardware- any part of the computer that you can touch; (keyboard, mouse, etc...)
-Software- part of the computer that you can’t touch; (programs)
-Data- raw facts that computers can manipulate; (letters, numbers, sounds)
-User- people who use the computer Clip Art-is large books filled with page after page of professionally created drawings and graphics that could be cut out or clipped from the pages and glued to a paper layout Punctuation
Period. 2 spaces after to end a sentence, 1 space after as an abbreviation, No space before.
Comma. 1 space after, No spaces before.
Question Mark? 2 spaces after, No spaces before.
Colon: 2 spaces after if it’s within a sentence, No spaces before, No spaces before or after when used for time.
Semi-colon; 1 space after, No spaces before
Exclamation Mark! 2 spaces after no spaces before.
General Rules, no spaces before or after: ‘ (apostrophe) / (diagonal) ⁰ (temperature degree) – (hyphen) Active Cell: The single highlighted location of a spreadsheet Arithmetic functions: The ability to use software formulas to perform specific operations Bridge – used to forward data from one network to another BUS - Each node is connected in series along a single conduit. Bitmaps
A grid whose cells are filled with a colour, the individual cells in the grid can all be filled with the same colour or each cell can contain a different colour. •Communications devices perform both input and output, allowing computers top share information. (modems) Computer-Aided Design (CAD) – Is the computerized version of hand drafting that was done by a pencil and a ruler. Cell: A single location on a spreadsheet Cell Address: A column letter and row number Center: Center positioning of text or data in a cell Cell Cursor: The highlighted bar wich indicates the "active cell" Column: The vertical portions or text or data in a cell Cell coordinates: The intersection of a column and a row Column width: The defaulted size of a column (on most software) is 9 characters. The size may be made wider or narrower. COUNT function: A built-in formula or function used with a range to indicate how many values are in the range specified Copy*: A software command to reproduce data from one location to another • Data- Raw facts that computers can manipulate (letters, numbers, sounds) Dialog Boxes – A dialog box is a special window that appears when a program needs information before completing a task. Digital Cameras
• Another way to import images into a computer, digital cameras store digitized images. Draw – A vector based graphics system. Data: A representation of fact. May include information from source documents (raw data). Default: The present conditions of the software which maybe modified, e.g., column width settings. DNS stands for Domain Name System Electronic Photographs
• Electronic Photographs are usually photos that have been converted into digital format by a scanner Edit Mode: Allows editing of the contents of the active cell. File: A stored spreadsheet Format: A plan, layout or command used to present the spreadsheet data clearly and more attractively. Formula: A value entry Function: A software formula for performing calculations or special operations. Gateway – a computer system the connects two networks and translates information from one to the other Grid: The intersections of rows and columns form a network of horizontal and perpendicular lines for locating points by means of coordinates. Home: The "A1" position of the cell cursor IP stands for Internet Protocol Label Alignment: The placement of data to the left, right or center of a cell • Mainframe computers can support thousands of users- Universities • Microcomputers or Personal Computers (PC) are used by people who need the power of a desktop system but also portability MAX Function: A built-in formula or function used with a range to find the highest value in the range specified. • Minicomputers have multiple terminals and may be used by large companies – Walmart Network of Networks
The core of the Internet is the set of backbone connections that tie the local networks together. Paint – A bitmap based graphics program Photo-Manipulation – Used for simple jobs such as: sharpening focus, or, adjusting focus. Protocol means Rules! RING - Nodes are connected in a circular chain, with the conduit beginning and ending at the same computer Router – like a bridge, but looks for more specific information as to the type of network that the data is being sent to STAR - All nodes are connected to a central hub. Scanners
•A scanner is like a photocopying machine except it copies the picture to the computer not to paper. • Software- part of the computer that you cannot touch; (programs) • Supercomputers are the most powerful computers – NASA TCP/IP - This stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol T a b E s c ~ ` ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ - + = D e l e t e [ ] { } | \ : ; ' " E n t r e R e t u n r < ____ S h i f t ? / > . < , Command Option Command Option Ctl fn Shift Caps lock 10 % 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % 90 % 100 % F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10
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