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Unit 5 - Sports Coaching
Transcript of Unit 5 - Sports Coaching
Assignment 1 - What makes a good coach?
By Killian Butler
Roles of a Sports Coach
Four roles of a sports coach are:
An innovator is a person who develops new methods & ideas of training which can have an effect for the team. Innovation is a new way or original way of doing something. It is vital for a sports coach to search for new techniques which can enhance a players development and all round performance, which will then lead to an increase in the enjoyment of training sessions. It is important for a coach to be an innovator as it allows for the team to be one step ahead of the others, as in sport and slight edge can mean a whole world of difference. A slight edge could be the difference between winning and losing matches. Innovation can be seen on a training pitch via developing new tactics which have never been used for, such as formations, or these new ideas could come off the pitch such, as new ways of testing individuals such as GPS's which is a new recent concept used in professional sports.
For example Clive Woodward (Former England Rugby Manager) would be classed as an innovator.
In general a friend is a person attached to another by feelings of affection or personal regard, within a sporting sense a role of a sports coach is be a friend, friend means being a good pal with the team, which can have a positive effect on the team to boost moral. As a relationship develops the coach can learn about the participants personality, this will allow for the coach to know which way to address them and the best way to get them to perform at their best via effective training
It is important for a sports coach to be a friend as it allows for the team members to feel comfortable and able to talk and query things surrounding the games, or personal life. Although it is important for the participant and the coach to outline clear boundaries at the start of the relationship. A coach can develop a friendship between team members and players due to their mutual respect for each other, aswell as having the same goals in which they both want to reach, which in sport is almost always to be successful. Before a friendship the players development must come first, the coach must be able to critic performances to allow for the player to develop further, although it may be easier to give the critique, being a close friend can result in a negative reaction to this feedback.
This comfortableness can have a positive effect, although it could lead to players not listening to the coach as they believe it will be alright. Although this is not the case for someone like Mourniho as it has a positive effect, which shown by is his trophies cabinet.
A famous example of a sports coach who is a friend is Jose Mourinho.
Jose Mourinho has been renowned in the footballing industry to respect his players and also receive this respect back. Especially at his first spell at Chelsea in 2004, he had become friends with the players and he was loved around the club. This has been shown as he is still known to the players as a close friend, even though he is not their manager and wasn’t for 6 years. John Terry in an interview with the Telegraph said “We send each other text messages and often wish each other good luck. He's interested in our results and everything that happens at the club. He's not only in contact with me but also with (Frank) Lampard and other players.” “We worked hard and we could also talk to him about personal problems. He was a friend. We were all sad when he left.” This is outlines how good Jose is with his players and staff surrounding him. He is widely regarded as a friend to players and staff.
Responsibilities of a Coach
Four Responsibilities of a Coach are:
Health & Safety
Knowledge of the Coaching Environment
Two key examples of the innovative ideas Clive Woodward used:
As Nick Pearce found out in 2011 for his telegraph article.
"Between 1998 and 2004 Woodward implemented a number of methods that raised eyebrows amongst his rivals but that ultimately gave England small "half a per cent" advantages over their opponents. He employed a vast backroom staff including coaches for specific aspects of the game (unheard of at the turn of the century): a masseur, a chef, and even a QC for any legal issues that arose on tours."
Woodward also implemented out of the box ideas which in that time period was unheard of. For example prior to the world cup of 2003 Woodward worked closely with Nike the kit the supplier for England as he found that the faster members of his team were being held back by their jerseys. This led to Woodward and Nike working together to create a tight fit top which was hard for the opposition to grab hold of. This top was debut at the World Cup of 2003 and ultimately gave England the edge, as they go to the final and won the world cup.
Health and safety is a key responsibility of a sports coach, it is managing and ensuring the safety of everyone participating or involved within the coaching session. When coaching under 18's the coach has an increased responsibility and legal obligations such as duty of care, which is means the coach is responsible for the care of the performers during that session. A coach must consider the health and safety of the participants before, during and after the sessions. Although during sessions the main coach will hold most of the responsibility regarding health and safety, but assistant coaches must also help to maintain high health and safety throughout the sessions. Playing sports, there is always an element of risk, it is the role of the coach: Asses risk, Protect athletes from injury and reduce the likelihood of injury, deal with injuries and accidents when they occur. A coach may asses every risk and hazard and implement where they believe they can reduce injury, keeping harm to a minimum. There are two major causes of injuries these are: extrinsic risk (something outside the body e.g. Faulty barbell clip), intrinsic risk (a physical aspect of the body e.g poor technique). To increase health and safety of the participants during a session, managers usually obtain a first aid qualification, this is more for amateur sporting performers such as Sunday League Football. Ultimatley health and safety is trying to ensure that all performers as well as spectators and others involved are safe and their health is maintained. An example of which is generic to all sports is a warm up, this three stage warm up allows for performers to perform well, but preparing their body for the game ahead which reduces injuries to them.
Health And Safety
An example of a coach that has to assess the health and safety of the area and participants is Karen Brown England’s Women’s Field Hockey Manager. Karen Brown before each training sessions would have to check and assess the risk of injuries. Field hockey is played with sticks a very hard ball, Karen would know that each player is at risk of injuries during the sessions, so they should protect player by providing shin guards, but also face masks during a practice match as taking penalty corners can result in a shot to the face. Before a session Karen would make sure all the correct staffs is an available at hand if any injury that may occur such as a Physio or a first aider.
A generic definition of insurance is a contract (policy) in which an individual or entity receives financial protection or reimbursement against losses from an insurance company.
A Sports coach is required to have an appropriate insurance cover to participate in physical activity as well as to lead a sport or physical activity session. A coach is responsible for the safety of the athletes is injured during a session, and the coach is considered liable and could be deemed negligent if the injury is serious. Insurance is used by coach, they own the insurance, but in many cases it is not used as the coaches and managers are professional in their practice, although all coaches should have them in the case of a freak accident. It is a financial protection for managers such as Stuart Lancaster, in case of an accident under Lancaster's sessions, this is important for Lancaster as the insurance is able to cover the financial side of the accident, which means Lancaster is will still be financially safe outside of the sport. An insurance policy's for sport is sold by many major insurance companies, such as Bluefin Sport (A leading sports insurance company). A policy is taken out by a coach, and they can pay the company a full years insurance or can pay in monthly installments, if all payments are made, this allows for the coach to be covered over by the insurance company for that year period. This will allow Lancaster for example to be financially stable if an accident was to happen.
An example of a coach with their own insurance would be Stuart Lancaster England Rugby Manager.
Stuart Lancaster must have his own personal insurance for when he coaches the English national squad. As rugby is a contact sport which can result in many serious and life threatening injuries, such as leg breaks and even neck breaks for example the horrific injury to Matt Hampton which paralyzed after a collapsed scrum. Lancaster must have his own insurance to cover himself during sessions as he will be liable for the injuries if they are to occur under his control. For example during an England training session if Owen Farrell was to break his leg, Stuart Lancaster would be liable, but due to his insurance he would be deemed negligent.
A coach should always behave appropriately. As a coach in the public eye like many sports coaches now are it is important to be professional, because at all times they are representing themselves, the club, their players etc. A coach’s conduct should determine the experience and future behavior of the players under their control. A coach should have the right qualifications, and demonstrate clear knowledge of the sport, while also dressing appropriately for the sessions. The importance of being professional allows for the managers work to go smoothly and players can focus on performances without any unnecessary pressure or commotion surrounding the club. Coaches have to increase their professional conduct, as in the recent years managers and close coaches have been in the public domain, which means they have to conduct themselves more often as the eyes are constantly on them, and then replayed through the media. A manager can show professional conduct, with their players, e.g keeping a professional relationship with their players, but managers must also remain professional during interviews. Professional conduct is vital to the a club and manager as it immediately has an effect on the club and effect a clubs reputation, depicting different ideas of the club to outsiders, as well as effecting the managers reputation an employability within the sport for the future. It is a key part of management and coaching in recent years, as it they are constantly watched, but it is key to players develop also, as a professional drills and sessions can allow for a better enviroment in which players can develop.
An example of a coach that’s professional conduct is sometimes deemed poor is Roy Keane, assistant manager of Ireland and Aston Villa.
Roy Keane has come under large media attention after his release of his Autobiography containing controversial comments as well as his press conference. Some see Roy Keane as a role model as he is a straight talking manager although this can put large amounts of pressure on the clubs in which he is employed by. For example at Sunderland and most famously at Ipswich Keane was known for the controversial comments made during press conferences, which resulted in talks with higher members of the club and ultimately his sacking from both clubs. Although during his release of his autobiography, it was released just before the start of Ireland’s euro qualifying campaign which was supported by the IFA, but it had a positive effect on the performances as deflected the media attention from the actual players and resulted in one draw and a win against tough oppositions
A Sports coach has to be familiar with the environment in which they are performing the session. This allows the coach to tailor the session to the environment and the participants who will be in that environment. For example a coach must be aware of the size of the area they have to perform the session. You do not want to plan a session with a large area but turn and the area is only 50% of the size planned. While also the size of the area the sports coach must be aware of the whole environment such as where the entrance, toilets, first aid room, fire exits etc. This sort of knowledge will motivate performers as they know that the coach knows the environment well and has prepared the session upon their arrival. An example of a coach that has to have a good knowledge of the coaching environment is Matt Little, Andy Murray's strength and conditioning coach.
Knowledge of Coaching Environment
Matt Little has to have a very good knowledge of the coaching environment to be able to tailor his training programmes for Andy Murray. For example he has to know the equipment available so that Little and implement exercises for Murray to perform. For example Little if he was going perform exercises on the court after a session, he will know it’s not accessible to bring benches and weights to the grass courts, instead Little would bring IT bands to perform exercises which will still benefit Andy Murray's physical condition and strength. Also Little will have to know the grounds in which he is performing the training session on. For example speed and agility exercises would be hard to perform on a clay court as the grip on the surface is poor especially when changing direction at a fast pace.
Skills of a Sports Coach
The three skills I will be looking at are:
Problems can arise very easily in the coaching environment as it is inconsistent there is always different variables which can lead to problems, a good coach needs to be able to solve the problems as soon as they arise. Problem can arise in many forms: Equipment, opponents, participants, facility and transport. Performers should expect problems to be solved before it causes a determent to the session. Solving the problem quickly can lead to the smooth running of the session. It’s the coaches’ job to spot these problems, and then find the solution to treat the problem, commonly it can be hard for a coach to prepare for the problem in advance, which means they have to act on the spot to find the solution, which keeps the session flowing and allows for it to continue as planned previously.. A good coach should be able to think on their feet and a player is not meant to know as the session should continue as normal. Is important to problem solve to keep sessions following and get the best out of the sessions available. An example of a coach who thinks on their feet to solve problems is Jose Mourinho.
Jose Mourinho is known for being able to spot problems very early and able to attend to the problem quickly before is hinders the performances of the team. At Chelsea during his first spell, Mourinho spotted that Damien Duff was getting beaten for pace down the left wing, during the first half, he was substituted for a quicker winger. This sort of solving cancelled out the effectiveness of the left back. While Mourinho has also been able to assert himself in the right manner when things change, for example Chelsea had a man sent off when Chelsea played Barcelona, Mourinho made sure straight away to change the formation using one center forward and keep the defense and midfield tight. This is why John Obi Mikel was brought on to hold the midfield and tie all the players together. This substitution was made within 30 seconds of the dismissal and allowed for Chelsea to draw this game.
Everyone who watches sports makes their own analysis of what they are watching (Subjective Analysis) but coaches need to analyse in great detail to get the best from their teams. A coach must develop clear expectations for their teams as this will enable them to complete a more useful analysis of a single player or a team. To analyse this means a coach must watch a team or player perform and observe the key areas of the performance that they need to improve aswell as the good things that are being performed. There are three ways a manager can analyse objective, subjective and notational analysis, all three if done properly can provide a player with key areas to work on to improve their performances, as well as viewing their behaviour, personality and motivation. It takes a time and experience to develop the ability to analyse well.
A coach however, can analyse more than what makes a performance good, they are able to analyse the personality and motivation of the athlete. The coach is also able to analyse the mood in which a player is in, this can allow for a coach to know the correct way to relay their analysis and results, as well as saying the correct things to boost their performances and morale.
An example of a coach that would analyse a performance would be Matt Little, Andy Murrays strength and conditioning coach.
During Andy Murrays performances his S & C coach would have a lot of analysis to do, they would analyse performance during conditioning sessions, as well during his performance. For example Matt Little would analyse form of exercises and act appropriately, as well as looking at performances and seeing what areas of his game that he could help to increase. For example if Murray was not making it around the court quick enough and missing balls due to the lack of pace. Little would then tailor a programme to increase this, and thus increasing the performance of Murray during matches.
During a sports training session a coach is at all times representing themselves and setting examples to the athletes involved. Coaches must use the correct language and behavior when surrounded by participants because being a role model, is generically an aspirations to be like that person, and respecting that coach. A coach usually gains a role model status via their conduct, but a lot of the time its due to their personal success within that given sport, while it can also be due to the mutual respect between player and coach. The coaches should accept responsibility for their conduct and the conduct of the athletes involved. To be an effective role model the coach must set an example, via wearing the correct clothes, correct equipment. Many role models are looked up because their conduct and past achievements. An effective role model would sell the sporting activity, this would make the performers more enthusiastic about the coach, as well as the sport they are coaching, which will result in an increase in participant and development over a period of time
A good example of a role model is Amelie Mauresmo who is Andy Murray's grass court adviser (coach)
Amelie Mauresmo is an former world number one tennis player. She is a role model to her athlete, Andy Murray as she was a former winner of Wimbledon. The most prestigious grand slam for a british tennis player. Mauresmo is also a role model for Murray as she has been in the game and played at a very high level, giving good advice about the game, which she can speak about due to her experiences. Mauresmo also applies her trade in correct ways via her equipment turning up ready and behaving in the correct manner towards her clients. She was has experience with past winners also with Marion Bartoli, who won a gram slam with out dropping a set under her assistance. these past experience would make Murray look up to her and listein to her advice as results can follow and have been proved to work.
A coach who takes up the role of a trainer must have the correct expertise to cope with the demands of a specific sport. They should have a wide range of exercises and activities that can be plucked out when they are needed to tailor a session to a goal or to a specific athlete.
Coaches need to have a good knowledge of health and fitness principles, as a trainer, a coach should be able to implement different programmes that are appropriate for the athletes. A good trainer develops over time, using different skills of a good coach with a combination of experience develops a good trainer. As they will have relevant experience of coaching and how the environment changes, which they will know how to react to this stimuli. A good is important for athlete as it is vital for their development. It is important to be a good trainer as it can get the best out of the participants as many of the programmes can be unique to just them and can increase a performance via training the weaknesses. A good trainer would know the best types of exercises which will achieve their goal at the end of the session.Although before developing these sessions, a trainer must take into account: age, ability, interests, experience.
An example of a good trainer is Toni Minichiello, Jessica Ennis-Hill's trainer since she was 13 years of age.
Toni Minichiello is known as a good trainer, which was shown as he was voted UK Coach of the Year 2012. Toni states in an interview with the The FA that a good trainer must tailor their programmes and sessions to suit the person or team they are training as this will get the best out of them. For example Toni, while training Jessica Ennis worked towards and Olympic style programme, which the long term goal was to win the gold medal at the olympic games which she famously did. Part of a programme was to train Ennis at a track where there was a lot of crowd noise which would get her use to the performance, and crowd noise.
Comparing Two Coaches
Two famous coaches in the sporting industry are Jose Mourinho who is very famous for his tactics on and off the pitch. While Woodward is known in the industry as the most innovative been able to apply his trade across many sports but he is most famous for his work with the England Rugby team especially in 2003.
Mourinho is currently the manager of Chelsea, this his second spell with the side. Mourinho has applied his trade over Europe and has become the most successful manager of his generation and certainly up amongst the best in history. Mourinho is known as a great coach as he has acquired many great skills over his time as a manager, for example he is one of the best for analysing games and performance of his teams and oppositions. This information is shown to his teams which make them the best sides in Europe as the analysis allows them to adapt to the opposition. The most famous came when at Chelsea vs. Liverpool, where Chelsea ‘Parked the Bus’ this is where Chelsea had all 11 players behind the ball for the majority of 90 minutes, and the emphasis was to break on the counter attack, this how Chelsea scored both their goals to win 2-0 away from home. Mourinho as manager of Chelsea also has many responsibilities as he manager of such a high profile club in an industry analysed and viewed by many. Most notably for Mourinho, professional conduct is a responsibility that Mourinho has come under pressure for over his managerial career. A Manager or coach should remain professional as they are representing themselves, players and the club. Mourinho has been involved in incidents were his professional conduct has been poor. For example during his tenure at Real Madrid Mourinho was fined by the club and also the Spanish Fa for poking a Barcelona official in the guy during a ruckus. Mourinho also possesses key roles in which he must apply while he is manager at Chelsea for example being a friend to the players, which can increase their performances on the field. Jose Mourinho has been renowned in the footballing industry to respect his players and also receive this respect back. Especially at his first spell at Chelsea in 2004, he had become friends with the players and he was loved around the club. This has been shown as he is still known by the players in being a close friend, even though he is not their manager and wasn’t for 6 years. John Terry in an interview with the Telegraph said “We send each other text messages and often wish each other good luck. He's interested in our results and everything that happens at the club. He's not only in contact with me but also with (Frank) Lampard and other players.” “We worked hard and we could also talk to him about personal problems. He was a friend. We were all sad when he left.” This is outlines how good Jose is with his players and staff surrounding him he is a very good friend to players, past and present.
Clive Woodward a famous manager in the sports industry after applying his trade in rugby he moved onto the be successful with the British Olympians in 2012. Woodward possess vast amounts of skills which have made him so successful over different sports, a key skill that he is known for is his analysis of performances. Woodward was key in the increase of sports science to the game of rugby. He installed cameras around Twickenham stadium (prozone) which could track his players during matches, and then analysed during and after the match to progress performances, while also introducing specific coaches for different areas of the game and outside the game e.g. a nutritionist and physiologist. Woodward while in all of his roles he has been left with important responsibilities, for example provide a good standard of professional conduct as in the highly acclaimed jobs he has been placed in this is key to a success within the job but also on the field. As shown in the video below, Woodward emphasises the importance of having insurance as a coach. This has been key for him personally, especially as England manager if an injury was to occur under his duty of care. Within the role Woodward has had many roles in which he must comply with most notably the key role which is associated with him is an innovator, during his tenure as England coach the science implemented into the camp to increase the performance of the players was never seen before in the game of rugby at that time. The most famous innovative idea Woodward had was to change the tops that the players wore, they were changed from big and baggy to small and tight, this was to avoid players getting pulled back and slowing the players down when on a break. This idea was never seen before, and was then taken on board by many clubs and teams, and nearly every rugby team implement this idea in their kit wear within both codes of the game
The managers have many characteristics which are similar to each other but they also possess difference which allow for themselves to differentiate from others in their industries. Woodward and Mourinho are both known within the game as tacticians, and they analyse the games to increase performances. Mourinho works tirelessly throughout the week setting up plans after vast analysis, which Woodward also did during his time as English coach. Both managers during their times have been shown as innovative, Mourinho with attics most notably ‘Parking the Bus’ and Woodward with his scientific approach to performance. Both managers have changed the industries they manage, and have moved the game on further from these innovative ideas. Both managers have had huge amounts of success from their characteristics, Woodward winning the rugby world cup in 2003 and Mourinho winning two champions leagues and countless titles across Europe. Both of the coaches have shown the qualities that they know there coaching environment very well, this is seen in the way that Mourinho applies his tactics in different grounds he performs in, for example when playing at Anfield not particularly wide pitch, the tactics were to tighten the formation and allow for less space to appear on the pitch, Woodward also knows his environment extremely well, as he implemented the Prozone system into Twickenham stadium he knew that these angles would show him a better picture and allow for him to analyse the performance better than the angles that were being shown previous. These two managers have a great time-management, especially as their whole work is set around cycles, such as Woodward’s Olympic cycle, and Mourinho although his cycle would be a much smaller one, One season they still use this cycles to peak at the right time of the seasons or over the 4 years. The managers would have viewed the cycles and they work weekly and to certain times in sessions as over month to reach this goal at the end of the cycles.
Although the two coaches can be seen as similar there are notable differences in their performances. When compared to Woodward, Mourinho’s professional conduct his poor and in the public eye Mourinho does not depict himself in a great way, which allows for media attention to be put on his players and himself. Whereas Woodward has been thoughtful during his media meetings with people, as he knows the affect that it may have on his sides. Although there can be a difference between the sports, that rugby is still seen in the public eye as a middle class sports whereas football is the working man’s game, this is why a finger in the eye of an rugby opponent manager would be a seen as largely drastic error and would be result in awful ban, fine and could even result in a loss of job. Although during Woodward reign as Director of Elite Performance, he had a less hands on approach to the day to day proceedings of athletes, whereas Mourinho would have been a better training during these times, as his hands on style to the running of Chelsea would have benefited the players. Mourinho would be able to get a better view of the players and was able to become a better friend and more personal with players, this would have been hard for Woodward as being head of so many aspiring Olympians and dealing with their own personal coaches is hard and therefore unable to deal with everyone and become as close to each athletes. Clive Woodward has been able to apply his trade across many sports in his career so far, his knowledge is able to apply and cross over many sports and educate these athletes. Mourinho’s expertise are much more specific to his sport although he has a vast knowledge of this sport (football) he is unable to input this knowledge into other sports, as it is so sports specific, meaning he would be un able to educate other athletes in their given sports. Clive Woodward espically as they both work in the UK, is a better communicator due English being his first language he is able to be more clear in his instruction to performers, although Mourinho has a good level of English his accent can be hard to understand for some of his players, which is the reason many hand movements are commonly used by foreign manager espically in football. Although Woodwards communication during games is always secondary as he is always postitioned in the stands, which allows for a better view of the play, but allows for less personal communication with his players, which Mourinho does as he is reguarly seen on the edge of his technical area, sending hand signals to players.
A coach has to carry out tasks before he delivers their session, it can demand a lot of time and effort. Many coaches who are not professional, may have to juggle a full time job or part time job, as well as delivering these sports sessions. For example many part time football managers work part time with the post office as the hours suit, them and allow them to work and still deliver good sessions. The demands that can be placed on a coach, make it more important for them to manage their time effectively. Prior to a coaching session a coach must endure that, all the athletes attending are aware of the location and timing of the session, that the facility is booked, the session is planned and the all the required equipment and arrangements are at the facility and have been made. While also during a session the coach must ensure that an appropriate amount of time has been dedicated to each part of the sessions, weaknesses have been observed and are worked on during the session, to make sure in the session that the athlete will develop technically and tactically, the session is fun and enjoyable. A manager can become a good time manager, using their past experiences a manager also being very organized and splitting up parts of the days to dedicate to the sport and setting up of the sessions. A coach needs to be a good time manager because, this will allow for the training sessions to be thoughtful and will always have a purpose as they have been thoroughly planned and will help to increase the development of the players. Rather than doing a session to make up time because the manager was unable to plan a session as he did not have enough time. Good time management allows for sessions to run smoothly and without loads of pauses setting up other drills as players can easily become tedious as well increasing the chances of injuries while standing around espically in the cold weather.
An example of a good time manager would be Matt Smith Ealing Rugby 1st Team manager a Part Time manager.
Matt Smith is the 1st Team coach of Ealing Rugby club this is semi professional club, who formerly were professional in the 2013-14 session. Matt Smith would have to juggle a Job as well as being able to plan session, and perform an analysis of the weaknesses from the previous games. Smiths to be able to organize his week and set aside times that he is working a planning sessions for the Ealing players, this will allow for the players to get the most out of the session and increase their development as players.