Send the link below via email or IMCopy
Present to your audienceStart remote presentation
- Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
- People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
- This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
- A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
- Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article
Do you really want to delete this prezi?
Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.
Make your likes visible on Facebook?
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.
The Road to Balanced Literacy
Transcript of The Road to Balanced Literacy
All About Me...
, readers must use
to them to help them make
of the text. These strategies include
sounding out words
summarizing, making inferences, searching for important ideas, and re-reading
8 Components of an Effective Literacy Curriculum:
Fluency and matching Students with Appropriate Text
Vocabulary Learning and Instruction
Scaffolding Students' Comprehension of Text and High-Order Thinking
Teaching Comprehension Strategies
Encouraging Independent Reading and Reader Response
Building Connections and Higher-Order Thinking
The Road to Balanced Literacy
by Michael F. Graves, Connie F Juel, Bonnie B. Graves and Peter F Dewitz (2010)
Module 1: Reading and Its Instruction
Professor: Juan Araujo
According to the cognitive-constructivist view of reading, reading is an interactive process where we actively search for meaning as we read. We also constantly access our prior knowledge as we read in order to gain meaning and make sense of what we are read. Everyone has different life experiences and prior knowledge and therefore the meaning we "construct" from a text is subjective.
Word Recognition, Automaticity, & Fluency
The ability to automatically recognize words, with little or no effort, is extremely important. One must have word recognition automaticity before they can read fluently. Fluency is characterized as the ability to read a text orally with speed, accuracy, expression, comprehension, and endurance (Graves, 2010).
Comprehension: The Construction-Integration Process
Developed by Walter Kintsch in 1998
Step 1- Construction: The reader reads/comprehends sentences and then links ideas from one sentence to another.
Step 2- Integration- The process of using prior knowledge to interpret the author's meaning.
Step 3- Metacognition- The reader confirms that his interpretation makes sense.
Schema theory suggests that knowledge is packaged in organized structures in our minds called schemata. Schemata helps readers make sense of what he reads, relating new information to prior knowledge, determining the importance of information in a text, making inferences, and remembering (Graves, 2010).
Reading and Learning to Read
stimulating literate environment
for their students.
Instruct the whole class but also work with
and individual students.
choice and motivation
by having a large classroom library with a wide range of genres and texts
Six Traditional Principles of Effective Instruction
Focusing on academically
Providing sufficient and timely
Highly Effective Schools & Teachers...
The Gradual Release of Responsibility Model
– The gradual release of responsibility model describes an instructional cycle in which students learn new skills and knowledge and gradually assume increased responsibility for their learning.
First stage of Gradual Release model. Teacher introduces and models a skill or strategy and explains what the students are going to do and how they are going to do it.
During this process, the teacher uses explicit instructional talk to reveal her thought process as she models the task.
: As students try new tasks and strategies, the teacher provides support by guiding students toward successful literacy experiences.
students learn new reading strategies, they must be given many opportunities and encouragement to use the strategy in these authentic contexts.
Constructivist Perspectives on Instruction
– It is important for students to learn to work together in small groups. Working together builds communication and conflict management skills.
Zone of Proximal Development
– According to Vygotsky, much of what we learn is acquired during our social interactions with each other. We have a range at which we learn. At one end of this range are tasks that we can complete independently; at the other end are learning tasks that we cannot complete, even with assistance. In between these two extremes is the zone most productive for learning,
Sociocultural Perspectives on Instruction
Make Motivation A Top Priority!
Our goal as teachers is to make reading a successful, engaging experience for all of our students. According to the text, a successful reading experience has a least 3 features... (Grave, 2010)
The reader understands what is being read
The reader finds the text enjoyable, entertaining, informative, or thought-provoking
The reader uses reading as a means to a larger goal- to learn about something
Ways to motivate students:
Create a print-rich, literate environment
Foster student success
Make time for reading
Provide clear learning objectives
Model enthusiasm for reading
Develop challenging yet engaging lessons
Make cross-curricular connections
Make connections to students' cultures and lives outside of school
Praise/ reward students
Give students choices
Designed by teachers for classroom decisions
Strong link to curriculum & instruction
Helps guide instruction
Example: Weekly quiz
Designed by experts for policy makers
Independent of curriculum & instruction
Example: End of Course Test
Three Themes of Assessment
- Teachers must act as a researcher, creating assessments that support success and provide a starting point for instruction (Graves, 2010)
Assessment must adapt to individual differences, as developmental levels vary within a classroom.
- A variety of formal and informal assessments used regularly to monitor student growth
Some educators believe that differentiation is about
students with texts and tasks that match their
ability, interests, and learning styles
Some educators believe that
assessments should drive instruction
and the teacher should organize her instruction and student groups according to the skill needs of the students. These grouping arrangements are
and reorganized based on subsequent assessment data.
Module 2: Reading- The Basics
Differentiated Instruction & RTI
Response to Intervention
(RTI), is a process of providing increasingly more
explicit and supportive instruction
, within the regular reading time or as a supplemental instruction outside the regular reading time, so that all students learn to read.
Can be used to help identify and refer struggling students for a special education evaluation.
"Once you learn to read, you will forever be free"- Frederick Douglass
Children need to acquire two insights about language in order to become success-
the alphabetic principle
(Snow, Burns, & Grifﬁn,
The Alphabetic Principle
is the insight that spoken sounds can be represented
by written letters.
is the insight that spoken words are made up of a sequence of somewhat separable sounds, called phonemes.
Mastering phonemic awareness is critical a reader's success.
Skilled readers recognize words automatically.
Automatic word recognition enables a reader to think about content when reading.
The Make up of Spoken & Written Words
Vowels and Consonants
the basic phonological unit of speech is the syllable
the initial consonant or consonants, and Rime is the the vowel and any consonants that follow it.
Rimes that share the same spelling. (sat, cat, mat)
Words that share phonograms
The smallest meaning units into which a word can be divided.
Afﬁxes: Preﬁxes and Sufﬁxes
- Morphemes that cannot stand alone to form words are called afﬁxes. There are two types of afﬁxes. A
is placed before a root to form a word with a meaning different from that of the root. A
is placed after a root to form a word with a different meaning.
The Importance of Fluency
Fluency is the ability to read rapidly, smoothly, without many errors, and with appropriate expression. A ﬂuent reader reads rapidly, without stumbling over words, and with good comprehension.
Create a Literate Environment
Identify books that your students may enjoy and give them
Book from a variety of cultural, linguistic, and social backgrounds
Newspapers, magazines, etc...
A good vocabulary program has
Provides children with
frequent, extensive, and varied
Includes instruction in
Provides students with instruction in
learning words independently
(builds students’ interest in words) teaches them to value words, and gets them
Four Frameworks for Scaffolding Students’ Reading
Directed Reading Activity:
Format consists of 1) readiness, 2) directed silent reading, 3) comprehension check & discussion, and 4) follow-up activities.
Directed Reading-Thinking Activity:
based on the premise that reading is a thinking process that involves the reader in using his own experiences to reconstruct the author’s ideas.
Scaffolded Reading Experience:
After considering a purpose, a selection, and a group of readers, the teacher develops a set of pre-reading, during-reading, and post-reading activities that supports students in achieving their reading goals.
During guided reading, the teacher guides a small group of readers. Students read text quietly while the teacher observes, guiding them to use strategies to unlock meaning.
Reading comprehension strategies are “conscious and ﬂexible plans" that readers apply to text in order to better understand, learn from, and remember what they read.
Establishing a purpose for reading
Using prior knowledge
Asking and answering questions
Asking and answering questions
Asking and answering questions
Dealing with graphic information
Imaging and creating graphic representations
Reading & Writing
Formal Writing Process
- students brainstorm and generate ideas on paper.
- Drafting takes place when students create a rough draft of their story.
- students add, remove, or change sentences and words.
- students focus on the conventions of their writing such as spelling, punctuation, and grammar.
- Publishing allows students to share their final product with others. -
Teacher Modeling a writing lesson
Reading and writing are two
Supporting English Language Learners
Provide Intervention with a focus on
and the development of
Instruction in strategies
- Teachers must explicitly teach new strategies
-Through coaching, hints, and modeling the teacher helps the student try out the new strategy.
- Phonemic awareness needs to be taught alongside decoding so students understand that segmenting and blending sounds leads to word recognition.
Primed background knowledge
- Previous knowledge and skills must be reviewed before
new ideas are introduced.
- Provide lots of review and distribute over time so that it is cumulative
- A well-paced lesson promotes students’ interest and attention
Empowering English Language Learners