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The Road to Balanced Literacy

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Michelle Houston

on 9 August 2014

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Transcript of The Road to Balanced Literacy

Hello! My name is Michelle Houston and I am a wife, mother, and Special Education Teacher in McKinney ISD. I have taught elementary and secondary special education resource classes for 14 years and have thoroughly enjoyed every minute that I've spent teaching students! One very proud moment as a teacher occurred when I won Teacher of the Year for my school in 2012. Teaching struggling readers is my passion and I look forward to implementing the strategies and best practices that I am learning in the classes at TAMUC.
All About Me...
Reading Strategies
When understanding
breaks down
, readers must use
to them to help them make
of the text. These strategies include
asking questions,

sounding out words
summarizing, making inferences, searching for important ideas, and re-reading
8 Components of an Effective Literacy Curriculum:
Phonemic Awareness
Fluency and matching Students with Appropriate Text
Vocabulary Learning and Instruction
Scaffolding Students' Comprehension of Text and High-Order Thinking
Teaching Comprehension Strategies
Encouraging Independent Reading and Reader Response
Building Connections and Higher-Order Thinking
RDG 597.001
The Road to Balanced Literacy
by Michael F. Graves, Connie F Juel, Bonnie B. Graves and Peter F Dewitz (2010)
Module 1: Reading and Its Instruction

RDG 597.001
Professor: Juan Araujo

Cognitive-constructivist View
According to the cognitive-constructivist view of reading, reading is an interactive process where we actively search for meaning as we read. We also constantly access our prior knowledge as we read in order to gain meaning and make sense of what we are read. Everyone has different life experiences and prior knowledge and therefore the meaning we "construct" from a text is subjective.

Word Recognition, Automaticity, & Fluency
The ability to automatically recognize words, with little or no effort, is extremely important. One must have word recognition automaticity before they can read fluently. Fluency is characterized as the ability to read a text orally with speed, accuracy, expression, comprehension, and endurance (Graves, 2010).

Comprehension: The Construction-Integration Process

Developed by Walter Kintsch in 1998
Step 1- Construction: The reader reads/comprehends sentences and then links ideas from one sentence to another.
Step 2- Integration- The process of using prior knowledge to interpret the author's meaning.
Step 3- Metacognition- The reader confirms that his interpretation makes sense.

Schema theory suggests that knowledge is packaged in organized structures in our minds called schemata. Schemata helps readers make sense of what he reads, relating new information to prior knowledge, determining the importance of information in a text, making inferences, and remembering (Graves, 2010).
Reading and Learning to Read
Create a
stimulating literate environment
for their students.
Instruct the whole class but also work with
small groups
and individual students.
choice and motivation
by having a large classroom library with a wide range of genres and texts

Six Traditional Principles of Effective Instruction
(Graves, 2010)
Focusing on academically
active teaching
active learning
Distinguish between
Providing sufficient and timely
Teach for

Highly Effective Schools & Teachers...

The Gradual Release of Responsibility Model
– The gradual release of responsibility model describes an instructional cycle in which students learn new skills and knowledge and gradually assume increased responsibility for their learning.
Direct Explanation:
First stage of Gradual Release model. Teacher introduces and models a skill or strategy and explains what the students are going to do and how they are going to do it.
Cognitive Modeling:
During this process, the teacher uses explicit instructional talk to reveal her thought process as she models the task.
: As students try new tasks and strategies, the teacher provides support by guiding students toward successful literacy experiences.
Contextualized Review:

students learn new reading strategies, they must be given many opportunities and encouragement to use the strategy in these authentic contexts.

Constructivist Perspectives on Instruction

Cooperative Learning
– It is important for students to learn to work together in small groups. Working together builds communication and conflict management skills.

Zone of Proximal Development
– According to Vygotsky, much of what we learn is acquired during our social interactions with each other. We have a range at which we learn. At one end of this range are tasks that we can complete independently; at the other end are learning tasks that we cannot complete, even with assistance. In between these two extremes is the zone most productive for learning,

Sociocultural Perspectives on Instruction
Make Motivation A Top Priority!
Our goal as teachers is to make reading a successful, engaging experience for all of our students. According to the text, a successful reading experience has a least 3 features... (Grave, 2010)

The reader understands what is being read
The reader finds the text enjoyable, entertaining, informative, or thought-provoking
The reader uses reading as a means to a larger goal- to learn about something
Ways to motivate students:
Create a print-rich, literate environment
Foster student success
Make time for reading
Provide clear learning objectives
Model enthusiasm for reading
Develop challenging yet engaging lessons
Make cross-curricular connections
Make connections to students' cultures and lives outside of school
Praise/ reward students
Give students choices
Classroom Assessment
Formative Assessment

Designed by teachers for classroom decisions
Strong link to curriculum & instruction
Helps guide instruction
Example: Weekly quiz
Summative Assessment

Designed by experts for policy makers
Independent of curriculum & instruction
Evaluate achievement
Example: End of Course Test
Three Themes of Assessment
- Teachers must act as a researcher, creating assessments that support success and provide a starting point for instruction (Graves, 2010)
Assessment must adapt to individual differences, as developmental levels vary within a classroom.
Progress Monitoring
- A variety of formal and informal assessments used regularly to monitor student growth
Differentiated Instruction
Some educators believe that differentiation is about
students with texts and tasks that match their
ability, interests, and learning styles

Some educators believe that
assessments should drive instruction
and the teacher should organize her instruction and student groups according to the skill needs of the students. These grouping arrangements are
and reorganized based on subsequent assessment data.
Module 2: Reading- The Basics
Differentiated Instruction & RTI
Response to Intervention
(RTI), is a process of providing increasingly more
explicit and supportive instruction
, within the regular reading time or as a supplemental instruction outside the regular reading time, so that all students learn to read.

Can be used to help identify and refer struggling students for a special education evaluation.
"Once you learn to read, you will forever be free"- Frederick Douglass
Emergent Literacy
Children need to acquire two insights about language in order to become success-
ful readers:
the alphabetic principle
phonemic awareness
(Snow, Burns, & Griffin,
The Alphabetic Principle
is the insight that spoken sounds can be represented
by written letters.
Phonemic Awareness
is the insight that spoken words are made up of a sequence of somewhat separable sounds, called phonemes.
Mastering phonemic awareness is critical a reader's success.
Word Recognition
Skilled readers recognize words automatically.
Automatic word recognition enables a reader to think about content when reading.
The Make up of Spoken & Written Words

Vowels and Consonants
the basic phonological unit of speech is the syllable
the initial consonant or consonants, and Rime is the the vowel and any consonants that follow it.
Rimes that share the same spelling. (sat, cat, mat)
Word Families-
Words that share phonograms
The smallest meaning units into which a word can be divided.
Affixes: Prefixes and Suffixes
- Morphemes that cannot stand alone to form words are called affixes. There are two types of affixes. A
is placed before a root to form a word with a meaning different from that of the root. A
is placed after a root to form a word with a different meaning.
The Importance of Fluency
Fluency is the ability to read rapidly, smoothly, without many errors, and with appropriate expression. A fluent reader reads rapidly, without stumbling over words, and with good comprehension.
Create a Literate Environment
Identify books that your students may enjoy and give them
Book from a variety of cultural, linguistic, and social backgrounds
Newspapers, magazines, etc...
A good vocabulary program has
major emphases...
Provides children with
frequent, extensive, and varied
language experiences
Includes instruction in
Provides students with instruction in
learning words independently
word consciousness
(builds students’ interest in words) teaches them to value words, and gets them
Four Frameworks for Scaffolding Students’ Reading
Directed Reading Activity:
Format consists of 1) readiness, 2) directed silent reading, 3) comprehension check & discussion, and 4) follow-up activities.
Directed Reading-Thinking Activity:
based on the premise that reading is a thinking process that involves the reader in using his own experiences to reconstruct the author’s ideas.
Scaffolded Reading Experience:
After considering a purpose, a selection, and a group of readers, the teacher develops a set of pre-reading, during-reading, and post-reading activities that supports students in achieving their reading goals.
Guided Reading:
During guided reading, the teacher guides a small group of readers. Students read text quietly while the teacher observes, guiding them to use strategies to unlock meaning.
Comprehension Strategies
Reading comprehension strategies are “conscious and flexible plans" that readers apply to text in order to better understand, learn from, and remember what they read.
Establishing a purpose for reading
Using prior knowledge
Asking and answering questions
Asking and answering questions
Asking and answering questions
Dealing with graphic information
Imaging and creating graphic representations
Being metacognitive
Reading & Writing
Formal Writing Process
- students brainstorm and generate ideas on paper.
- Drafting takes place when students create a rough draft of their story.
- students add, remove, or change sentences and words.
- students focus on the conventions of their writing such as spelling, punctuation, and grammar.
- Publishing allows students to share their final product with others. -
Teacher Modeling a writing lesson
Reading and writing are two
components of
(Graves, 2010)
Supporting English Language Learners
targeted intervention.
Provide Intervention with a focus on
and the development of
prior knowledge
Instruction in strategies
- Teachers must explicitly teach new strategies
Mediated scaffolding
-Through coaching, hints, and modeling the teacher helps the student try out the new strategy.
Strategy integration
- Phonemic awareness needs to be taught alongside decoding so students understand that segmenting and blending sounds leads to word recognition.
Primed background knowledge
- Previous knowledge and skills must be reviewed before
new ideas are introduced.
Judicious review
- Provide lots of review and distribute over time so that it is cumulative
Well-paced instruction
- A well-paced lesson promotes students’ interest and attention

Empowering English Language Learners
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