**Data and Basic Statistics**

Looking at your data

**Bi-Modal**

Frequency Distribution

Let's understand why! :)

All of this makes sense right, but it assumes we have a normal distribution

If it wasn't normal, what would happen with our Z-scores?

Wednesday

Often times subjects won't complete a survey, or will mostly complete it. What should we do in this case?

Assignment 10

Histogram/Freq Dis

T-Test

Compare means of two groups.

Book Discussion

**Week 11**

By now you should all have, or almost have your data collects

We need to know the Mean, the number in question, and the standard deviation. Then we can calculate z-scores.

z-score will then tell us probability of that score in our sample, which ideally reflects the population

Z-score is really just how many standard deviations something is.

Positive and Negative Skew

Break into groups - think of real world data that

would likely have a positive or negative skew.

Kurtosis can also mess us up

Lepto and Platy

What real world data would be Bi-Modal

Talk about correlation

and T-test.

Friday - Assignment 10 due

Statistical analysis.

Missing Data

1. Often we just remove them from our study.

- But.. this decreases our N, and our power to find results

- And, the people that choose not to fill out data, might

be representative of the sample, so if we toss them out we might hurt our ability to generalize. (BIG 5)

2. For our studies, say they were filling out a happiness scale and overlooked one question.

8 question scale. They have average of 4 points

per answer. Putting in 4 for that blank space is

probably our best guess to get the right answer.

ASSIGNMENT 10: GROUP ANALYSIS

1. Formulate your null and alternative hypotheses

2. Report your final sample size N, and/or your sub group sample sizes.

3. Create histograms for each of your (total) scores (Each Construct in Correlation, or each group in comparison)

4. Find the means and standard deviations for each of your constructs or groups

5. Create a scatterplot of your two (total) scores (For correlation only)

6. Determine the correlation between your two constructs (r) OR Determine how different the two groups are using a T-Test p < ___?

7. Report whether your results support your null hypothesis or your alternative hypothesis (Null means no difference or no strong correlation)

With graphs etc it should be a few pages long. Please include all of the above, and continue using APA format. Write it as you would a results section.

I don't need any extra fluff, but just put it in paragraph form, not bullet points etc.

Null Hypothesis, there is no relationship between groups.

There is no difference between groups on the measure construct.

File-Options-Addins-Analysis Toolpak

- Then hit go and add that puppy in

- Now under DATA tab you will have Analysis on the far right - Find Histogram and do your thing!

For Bin range use more numbers vs fewer to get a better idea of your distribution shape. Do this for both constructs or both groups.

TTEST

is the command to use in Excel.

Correlation

Compare relationship between two variables.

CORRE

L is the Excel Command.

Create scatter plot with fit line

And Equation

Chap 7 -

Jim and Diane - and the affair

Who's justification made more sense?

Was it hard to see the other side?

Tales of Family Drama?

Gifts, cards, weddings, money, sharing, favoritism etc.

Who in life dislikes you the most? Does anything think you are pretty much evil?

How do you deal with that?

What did you do to get this

label?

Pain felt is stronger

than pain inflicted

"Put pressure on their finger,

the same amount you felt"

This is almost an impossible task that always escalates.

Natural Escalation and Retaliation

Examples?

Perpetrators

How do they (sometimes you) justify hurting others?

1. I actually didn't do anything wrong at all, it actually was the right thing to do! "I helped them build character!"

2. Admit but minimalize. "Okay okay I hit him but, it was barely more than a love tap"

3. Admit, and quickly move on. "Yes I did that, it is in the past, one time deal, it will never happen again."

Victim's have long memories, perps have very short ones...

Examples?

Doing Evil

Actually we rarely think that we are.

When we hurt another person, we will tend to think

even less of them afterward

(Especially if we think highly of ourselves)

(Especially if our victims are helpless)

Mutual shock study, and denigration of the victim

Milgram's shock study

"honestly the participant was being pretty dumb, they kinda deserved it."

Chapter 8

Letting go and owning up

Imagine how it would feel if someone you have had issue with finally just admitted they were wrong?

Is there someone in your life that you could also give that gift too?

Who would it be, and what could you say?

We often fear admitting fault, because people will think less of us.

Research suggests that is not true.

I have found it to not be true in counseling as well

Same goes for MDs and chance of lawsuits

It helps to build trust and an authentic connection

So if it is a good thing, why

are we not doing it more often?

1. We are often not aware we are justifying, much of it is below consciousness

2. Cultural expectations to not make mistakes.

3. It sometimes helps us preserve our self-esteem, beliefs, confidence, decisions etc. It can be useful but also destructive.

We will often hurt ourselves and our lives to avoid

the pain of dissonance.

Those who feel insecure in their beliefs are most likely

to put down, harass and try to convince others of

what they believe. (religion, politics, fav tv show)

A little ammo to use for the next

person that tries to cram

something down your throat.

Talent vs. Effort cultures

If talent is fixed then what is the risk of messing up?

If practice makes perfect then what is the risk of messing up?

We could try rewarding people for effort, and for admitting mistakes, and believing in effort and growth, not fixed talent.

We also need to increase self-awareness, to make conscious what usually lies below.

We can be more mindful, create space between reactions

Being aware of our dissonance gives us the ability

to respond differently, break cycles, grow,

learn, and live more meaningfully.