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CTSS CPA 3A3 _ Grace Lee (7) :)

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Grace Lee

on 6 April 2011

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Transcript of CTSS CPA 3A3 _ Grace Lee (7) :)

Embedded processors and Automation A processor is a part of the computer that
follows instructions and carries out actions.
It is like the "brain" of a computer. Computers and productivity Mass production is the manufacture of large amounts of dtandardised products on production lines. It was poularised by Herry in the early 20th century. During that time, mass production made Ford's
car (Model T) affordable to many people. Mass production increases
the amount of things that
a company can produce,
and help increase productivity.
Before Herry Ford's production
line, a car would be built by
a group of people. So a person
may be in charge of fitting the
wheels, doors, roof as well as the lights. Automation occurs when machines are used to
carry out a process or an activity with minimum
human effort or supervision. Henry Ford said : Mass production became popular
because it enables goods to be
produced on large scale at a low
price. Mass production is so common nowadays
that some parts in iur daily appliances may
actually come from the same factory. That is
why the computers that we use are cheaper
nowadays because of mass production. Requires a large workforce Because a production line has
many steps, it requires a large
number of people to support
these steps. Repetirive boring work Work in a production line is
repetitive and tends to be
boring. In the early part of the 20th
century, automation was initailly
done using mechanical machines.
These machines were cleverly
designed to perform only some
part of the production line
automatically. A forklift. Drilling machine A robot is a computer-controlled
machine. They can perform physical
task. Robot are usually used to perform
in dirty, dangerous, diffcult, repetitve task
or task that need accuracy. Benefits of using robots There are some advantages of using robots:
because robots work at fast speeds, products
are made in a shorter time. so with robots productivity
is high.
-Because robots are accurate and consistent, consistency
and quality of products can be ensured.
-The cost of producing goods are reduced in the long run.
- Workers do not have to be exposed to conditions that
are dangerous or harmful to their health. Which is more superior, human beings or computers? Computers are being used to perform
many functions that used to be done
by people. An example is the job of the
bank teller. In the past, when we want to
deposit or withdraw money, the only way
is to join the queue at the bank and interact
with the human bank tellers behind the bank
counter. In this century, there is no human bank
tellers is being replaced by a automated teller machine
(ATM). ATM Huamn bank teller Publishing and print industries Publishing is the activity of putting imformation
in the public arena (e.g. newpapers, magazines, books).
Printing is part of publishing. It is an industrial process
for the production of text and images with ink on paper
using a printing press. Benefits of using computers in publishing
Graphics can be changed more easily than before.
The spelling and grammer checker in word processors helps to reduce mistakes in manuscripts.
In the past, layout was done maually( i.e cutting and pasting). A desktop publisher considerably improves productivity in doing layout.
Previously cameras with colour filters were used to take pictures of the illstrations and photograhps. The components of colour images wre then reocorded onto black and white films from which printing plates were made. The use of high-resolution machines called image-setters improves productivity inproducing films.
Modern printing machines are controlled by computers. They can adjust the print position and colour, ensuring a high-quality product. Computers to plate ( CTP)
The process of printing we have just seen can be called
"film-to-plate". There is a new type of process called "compute-to-plate" (CTP). It is a type of printing process which skips the film-producing step. In this method, the digital image, which is also in the CMYK format, is transmitted directly from the computerto a plate. Benefits of CTP
CTP technology saves money and time in producing
flims and shooting plates from flims. This is increases productivity.
Without having to arrange the films to shoot plates, it reduces
the risk of human error. CTP plate setter Postal mail sorting Computers are also to improve productivity
in public services. Postal mail sorting is a good example. 1. The envelopes are put into a computerised
machine called CFC ( Culler-facer-canceller).
It tasks :
It only takes in those within a certain range of thickness, length and height.
It then arranges the accepted letters such that adresses face the same
It has sensor to detect the envelopes and to print a postmark on the stamp such that it cannot be re-used.
It has an OCR ( optical character recognition) program to read the hand written postal codes on the envelopes.
It prints a barcode, called the ID tag, at the back of the envelopes for identification. 2. The envelopes go to the BCS (barcode sorting)machine. The BCS machine:
reads the ID tag and retrieves the postal code.
prints another barcode, called the destination code, that represents the 6-digit postal code. 3. The envelopes go to the DBCS( destination barcode sorting) machine. The DBCS machine:
reads the destination code
sorts the envelopes into their repective postal code. Benefits of using computers in postal mail sorting
Less manpower is used because of the use of computerised machines. This shortens the time taken to process mail and so the envelopes reach their deriantions earlier. Sorting envelopes manually requires a lot of manpower and it time consuming. Also, more mistakes may occur. CFC Computers at the airport Airport are important hubs for travel.
Improvements in aircaft technology
mean that more and more people are
travelling by plane. As the volume of air caft traffic
increased, computers were slowly
roped in tp perform some of repetitive
tasks and , subsequently, some of more
sophisticated taks. Designing airports Computers can be used for designing
airport. For example, using computers, different designs can be simulated on a computer to test their effectiveness. Simulations may be used to test the amount of air trffic that the airport can handle based on airspace capcities, companrisons of alternative sites. Travel/ fight information The travel /fight information board
is very important in modern airports
because passengers base their plans on them.
In small airport, there is no need to use computers to update travel/fight information boards because the number of fights arriving departing is small. IN such cases, travel/fight information boards can be update manually perhaps once every 4 hours. Customer database
Computer are also widely used to automate
the collection of customer information. for example, when booking online, the customer's information is collected and stored on a computer. Advantages of customer database.
-Saves time
Storing the customer's information in a database
allows this information to be retrieved or update very easily and
quickly.
- Data mining
Data mining refers to extracting informaion from data. this information
helps to reveal hidden patterns in the data that can be used to predict the future.
Disadvantages of customer datsbase
-Cost
The equipment and software to support a customer database
may be expensive.
- Cost of failure
Storing the information in a customer databse may lead to a
high cost of failure when database is down.
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