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Transcript of Unit 7-sessions9-10
The Black Report 1980
1. Discuss terminology and ways of gathering data about trends in health and illness among different social groupings.
2. Analyse 'The Black Report'.
3. Start research in the library. Gather data and evidence about specific health trends in the UK.
This is the title of your essay.
'Explain patterns and trends in health and illness among different social grouping'.
Explain what the question wants you to look at.
Describe how you will do this.
Your essay needs to have an introduction
The Black Report 1980 – a study which looked at reasons for differences in health, ill-health and life expectancy between social classes.
You can find it here: http://www.sochealth.co.uk/Black/blackintro.htm
There were 4 sociological explanations presented by The Black Report to explain the differences in health and well-being.
explanation said statistics produced a biased picture.
People in lowest social classes had higher numbers working in traditional and dangerous industries and so it would be expected that they would have higher rates of illness. Therefore it is
age and employment
of people that causes high levels of illness and lower life expectancy.
1. Statistical artefact explanation
This explanation thought it wasn’t low social class and associated low wages, poverty and poor housing that caused illness.
The reason for inequality was due to poor health which leads to people having lack health promotion.
This explanation was rejected by sociologists as they consider ill-health is caused by deprived circumstances.
2. Natural or social selection
This explanation looked at the behaviour and lifestyle choices of people in the lower social classes.
It appeared lower social classes smoked more, drank more alcohol, took less exercise and ate more junk food.
Poor lifestyle choices were linked to a range of chronic illnesses – heart disease, cancer, diabetes and bronchitis.
3. Cultural or behavioural explanation
Shorter life expectancy and higher infant mortality groups in society tend to have poorer health due to inequalities in wealth and income.
Poverty and low income are linked to poor diets, poor housing in poor environments and more dangerous and insecure jobs.
The Black Report concluded
Poverty + poor community = poor health + lower life expectancy
4. Material or structural
Women’s life expectancy is higher than men.
Infant mortality rate for boys tends to be higher than that of girls.
Women have higher reports of illness than men.
Men tend to smoke and drink more alcohol than women.
Men tend to do more dangerous sports than women.
Men take more risks than women – road accidents.
Women still earn less than men!
More women are in lower paid jobs than men
Women are more likely to be main or lone carer
Women more likely to be on means tested benefits
Women are more likely to live in poverty in later life as they won’t have an employer’s pension.
Women are less likely than men to have a full state pension as they have had family commitments.
Tend to have shorter life expectancy
Tend to have higher infant mortality
They have higher rates of poverty
Language barriers may hinder access to health and social care services – translators are in shortage
Females may be reluctant to see a male GP
Ethnic minorities in the UK
There are regional variations in patterns of health and ill-health.
Mortality and morbidity vary in different parts of the UK and within areas of towns and cities
Certain health problems vary dramatically depending on where you live - eg lung cancer
the different patterns and trends in health and illness .
Let's have a look at
You need to include:
The Black Report
At least 5 aspects to discuss - smoking, life expectancy, suicide rates, morbidity and mortality rates, incidence of disease.
Find statistical evidence to support points made – must be referenced/dated.
Explanation for the statistical
Overall conclusion – is there inequality in health and illness? Give a summary of your research.
Read your assignment brief again.
Remember to add your bibliography.
Deadline: 13th January 2013.
Overview before you begin
artefact: a thing made by human workmanship for any feature introduced during a scientific study.
Let's look at where we can get the data from with regards to health.
The biomedical model dominates the West, therefore health is measured in negative terms. Statistics produce data about:
- level of disease
- number of deaths
Epidemiology – provides data of number people within a population that are affected by ill health
Firstly, do we all know what we mean by trends in health?
- Where can we find them?
E.g. office of national statisticsHome: UK National Statistics Publication Hub Health statistical quarterlyNational Statistics Online - Product - Health Statistics Quarterly the ONS publication Other ONS publications: Office for National Statistics
Charitable Organisations and Pressure Groups
E.g. mind, young minds, dyslexia.org.ukdyslexia.org.uk
Academic Researchers and Other Authors
In order to understand what these rates are, your best bet is to find them out yourself.
So, using the book, your handout, books in the library and the internet, I would like you to find out some different trends on health.
You are going to use the gathered data in your assignment!
– how many people have died in that time
Morbidity rates –
how many people have been ill with something in that time. Data is gathered from the Government, NHS and local authority social services departments. General Household Survey (GHS) Continuous population government survey – Includes questions of peoples experience of illness both acute and chronic. Working days lost due to sickness can provide a measurement of morbidity – Why may this not be a reliable measurement?
The office for National Statistics is responsible for this collection of data. Can be compared internationally because most countries hold similar information. Expressed in different ways:
Basis measurement deaths per 1000 people per year:
Standard Mortality Ratio (SMR)
Infant Mortality rate (IMR)
Why are statistics important?
stats helps us to see if there are trends or biases in our results.
But… these stats may be wrong!
Who found them out?
Who did they study to find it out?
Who published it? The News of the World?
Who gave the researchers money to do the research?
Plus…the clinical iceberg and individual differences
his is why we reference our info!
Let's talk a bit about social groups and health tendencies in the UK.
Define the terms first: 'pattern', 'trend'