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ON Science: McGraw-Hill Ryerson

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Transcript of ON Science: McGraw-Hill Ryerson

ON Science 9
Chemistry

Chapter 4
Properties and Matter

Chapter 5
Elements/Atoms
Periodic Table

Chapter 6
Compounds/Models

Chapter 4.1 Types of Matter
Matter
Mixtures
Pure Substances
Elements
Compounds
Solutions
Mechanical Mixtures
Mixtures are any substance that are made out of two different particles (ex: Salt Water)
Mixtures can be divided into two categories the solutions and mechanical mixtures
Mixtures can be separated by several different means (ex: filtration, distilation, Magnetism)
Mixtures are separated by using the properties of the two different types particles in it.
Solutions are are mixtures that are homogeneous(meaning they seem to be one substance by view) "Homo" means "same"
Solutions are made from a solvent, such as water and a solute, such as salt. The solvent dissolves the solute to form a solution, such as salt.
A solution with water as a Solvent is called an "aqueous solution"
Salt water is salt dissolved in water meaning it is an aqueous solution
Mechanical mixtures are mixtures that you can visibly see the difference between the particles (ex: Pizza, Burgers or almost anything with different colours)
Pure substances are made of only one type of particle, which means each particle is identical to each other
Pure substances can either be an element or a compound
Each pure substance does have its own properties
Is iced water a pure substance or mechanical mixture?
use your knowledge and explain why.
Brass is an "alloy": a solid solution composed of metals
Elements are pure substances that can't be separated any further by normal chemical means
Elements are all atoms, smallest particle possible to maintain its identity
Elements are organized based on their properties, which will be explained in the chapter 5 section
Read Element and pure substance section first
Compounds are pure substances made of two or more different elements chemically bonded
Compounds can be separated into smaller compounds/elements by chemical means
Water (even when iced) is a compound not a mechanical mixture because it is just made of the same type particle. Regardless of state the particles can be stil identical
Salt is a compound made of sodium and chlorine
4.3 chemical properties
Reactivity with other substances
Certain Elements and compounds have a very large reactivity with other particles This is determined by the arrangement of electrons as you will learn in chapter 5
When substance react they produce a new substance knowing how substances react we can produce and develop products for our use or use the new substance to our advantage. These substances are called "reactants" and the "product(s)"
Combustility
Combistibility is the property to be able to burn in air for example the reaction with propane and oxygen releases a large amount of heat. Other examples include nitroglycerin, Methane, natural gas, hydrogen and many more substances
Hydrogen peroxide as an example reacts with the compound menalin in your hair that is responsible for giving your hair its colour. Its also responsible for making dyes for your hair however its is very reactive with your eyes and skin, even your hair eventually becomes very brittle when to much is used, it can cause even bleaching, redness and skin blisters
Toxicity and Stability
Toxicity refers to the substance's ability to affect organisms upon exposure
Toxicity is mesured as a LD 50 value as a dose of how much is required to kill 50% of the exposed population
Stability refers to how easily a substance breaks down the more stable it is the longer it takes to break down
Only 0,000000001g/kg of body mass of clostridium tetani is necessarry to kill a person
When scientist create products they need to make sure the their product will last the duration of its use. However another problem to consider is how to dispose of the product once its done its use, whether to recycle or any other method. If the product is too durable and stable, then it will linger as litter, such as plastic
A chemical property is a property that involves the change of identity of the chemical or substance. The properties describe the substance's ability to react with and create other substances.
Quantitative physical properties
Qualitative physical properties
Colour, Malleability, Texture, and Lustre
Viscosity
As Learned in your Previous grade Viscosity is a the resistance to flow
It is mesured by a fixed amount of time to cover a certain distance
Melting, Boiling, Freezing and Condensation Points. Each one can be mesured in farenheight, celcius
or Kelvins (or any other energy unit)
Hardness: Refers to the ability to scatch or be scratched by other materials.
This is mesured on a scale of 1-10 called the Mohs Scale
Solubility
refers to the ability to be dissolved in another substance
It can be mesured as the maximum amount of solute possible to dissolveinto a fixed amount of solvent at a fixed temperature
Quantitative properties are properties that can be mesured or recorded numerically in any way this section will only mention physical properties


Qualitative Properties are properties that are described using either adjectives or words and cannot be mesured numerically thus section will only mention physical properties
Density
refers to the amount of matter of that substance can be in a fixed amount of space at a fixed temperature
Can be mesured Mass/Volume
Conductivity
Refers to a substance's ability to conduct electircal or themal energy
There are several way to mesure electricity (ex: In watts, volts, Amperes) this will be further discused in unit 4
As for Heat you can mesure by temperature change in a fixed amount of time.
5.1Development of the Atomic Model
Development Of The Atomic Model
Thomson's Raisin Bun Model Theory
In 1897 ,Joseph John Thomson observed the phenomena when we send an electric current through a low pressured gas in a
gas discharge tube
. This causes the negatively charged particles in the atom to emit a light. Using Dalton's theory Thomson assumed that each of the elements should emit a different colour of light based on its properties. However the colours emitted were always the same regardless of which gas was used. This led Thomson to believe that
in each and every atom there were the same negatively charged particles
. And
to make each of those atoms neutral there had to also be positively charged material as well
. So his theory was a positively charged mass with electrons embedded into that mass to make it neutral and to allow an electrical current to flow through. This was later on called the
"Raisin Bun Model".
Bohr-Rutherford model
# of Protons

# of Neutrons
16
2
3
4
8
9
7
6
1
5
10
11
12
13
14
15
17
18
19
20
The number of electrons is equal to the number of protons (assuming that the atom is neutral)
This Model functions until it reaches atomic #20, Calcium, From this point beyond electrons arrange themselves differently
5.2 Inside The Atom
Metals/Non-Metals/ Metalloids
5.3/5.4 The Periodic Table of Elements/Trends
Ionic Compounds
6.1
Molecular
Compounds
6.2
Modeling 6.3 Compounds
2-Dimensional
3-Dimensional
Ball and Stick Model
Space-Filling Model
Solubility
Conductivity
Bohr-Rutherford model
The Bohr-Rutherford Model Dislays the atomic number, the arrangement of the electrons and the Isotope of the atom represented. It also shows the type of the bond and the pairs of electrons involved in the bond
2-Dimensional models give more information about the atoms. elements and compounds themselves more, showing their structure, charge and arangement. These are better at showing smaller particles such as eleemnts, and some compounds
18
These are methane molecules of different 3-D models
Compare and Contrast
Both of these models show direction and the relation of the particles
Both of these models require a greater understanding of particles and how they react, their charge and their properties, etc
Spacing-Filling Models show a scale size of particles
Space-Filling Models are far more precise and complex, but are just as difficult to create
Ball and stick models allow you to see in between particles easily, while Space-Filling Model may conceal the interior
Ball and Stick Models are better at representing long chains of elements/molecules such as polymers/proteins. Their Signature trait is their ability to present the arrangement of the molecules in polymers or other particles. In addition to that they are better at making complex particles simpler.
Is the image (Left) better as a space-filling model or a ball and stick model? (its cellulose)
If you had the real life models of this molecule, you would probably understand the ball and stick model better than the other one. The design is simpler because you can see the arrangement of the particles. In the figure on the right compares the two 3-D models. Clearly the ball and stick model is easier to comprehend. An (below) important application of ball and chain models being able to represent shape clearly is when dealing with DNA and protein molecules because you can visualize which particles linked and their arrangement, which is crucial when dealing with DNA structures.
Which model is easier to understand?
The Left or the Right?
If this were a space-filling Model it would look like a blob
Space-Filling Models are better at showing the actual size of molecules and better at comparing different things (of the same model) and see how they would co-exist with each other or how they would look in real life situations. They are usually better when dealing with flatter surfaces, designs and architecture.
Ball and stick Model advantage
Space Filling Model
Space-filling models are best in achitecture designs, shapes, structures, etc. This model accels at making shapes, structures of any type of building as it gives precision however they cannot represent particles or objects that have merged or bonded well.
look around and see all of the shapes structures and buildings shown, you may even recongnize some of them.
Click on a picture to view it
use your mouse wheel too
http://freshome.com/2012/08/17/iconic-legends-the-10-greatest-modern-architects-of-our-time/
This website has amazing achitecture
Characteristics
Formation
Attraction/bonds & states of matter
Formation & identity
Attraction/bonds & states of matter
Name
Relative
Mass
Electrical Charge
Location in
the atom
Effects of this particle on the
atom (what it determines)
Seek chapter 5.1 for how to draw the Bohr-Rutherford Model
1837
1836
Neutron
Proton
Electron
1
No
Charge
(0)
In The
Nucleus
In The
Nucleus
Orbiting
The
Nucleus
Each element has atoms of different types, these different types are distinguished by the number of neutrons in the nucleus.
Each atom of an element with a different number of neutrons is called an "Isotope".
Neutrons determine the "Isotope" of the atom of the element
Isotopes
Here is an example of hydrogen with its Isotopes:
The regular hydrogen (Protium) is hydrogen-1
Deuterium is hydrogen-2
Tritium is hydrogen-3
The different in mass number is based completely on the amount of neutrons that each isotope of the element has
Here there are two different elements with the same mass number because for each less proton that argon has, it has an neutron (vice,versa with Calcium and the number of neutrons).
This means that different elements with certain isotopes can have the same mass number (not atomic mass)
Note: There are bounaries to the amount of neutrons the atom can actually contain. The amount of neutrons revolve regularly around the number of protons
TO Name an Isotope write the name of the element, place a hyphen and then write the Mass number
Protons Determines The Identity
As we know,
each element has its own unique atomic number
(# of protons in the atom).
As stated above we also know
that atoms can have the same mass number but not same atomic number
Explained in 5.3
This is important in detemining the element of atoms
Protons also help determine electrical charge
In neutral atoms (meaning it has no electrical charge) The number of electrons and protons are "=" equal. which is good because the number of electrons helps us determine other things
Electrons Determine properties
As you have read about how electrons fill energy layers, the electrons on the outermost layer affects how the atom reacts (discussed further in chapter 5.4)
Sneak Peek at What's Coming
Electrons will determine:
Electrical charge (Protons-Electrons= Electrical Charge)
The atom's chemical properties
Stability
The amount of energy levels
Size of the atom
Whate other kind of atoms this atom will react with
Here's what atomic notation is
The Planetary Model
In 1907, Earnest Rutherford, a New Zealand scientist created an experiment where he projected positively charged alpha particles into a thin layer of gold foil. When the alpha particles strike the flourescent screen around the gold foil, Rutherford would know which direction the alpha particle went.
+
+
+
+
+
In the early 1800s, John Dalton separated water molecules by sending an electrical current through them, this caused the water to convert into hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Because of the hydrogen and oxygen that formed he assumed that each element was an indestructible sphere that is the smallest particle of the element, with its own unique properties.
Dalton's Atomic Theory
Using Thomson's model Rutherford predicted that most particles would pass through or some with little deflection. To his surprise some of the alpha particles were repelled backwards. Due to this Rutherford knew that Thomson's model had to be modified.

1.Experiment
2.Result
3.Conclusion
Rutherford inferred that because alpha particles were positively charged particles.
He proposed that all of the positively charged particles formed a dense centre known as the nucleus.
He also proposed that
the electrons were orbiting the nucleus which gives the atom a neutral charge.
This way the alpha particles can either go through the space between the atoms or get close enough to the positively charged nucleus that it will be out of the negative electron range, thus being repelled by their similar charges
and thus, the planetary model was born
Electrons arrange themselves in energy "
shells
" (energy levels). The first starts with 2 electrons and the rest have 8 electrons in each of those energy levels. The electrons are arranged starting from the center at "1" and gradually go higher in energy levels.
All elements have a symbol to represent it consisting either of a Captital or capital with smaller case letter(s)
Li
6.9
3
Example:
Sub-atomic particles
Ionic compounds are formed between metals and non-metals
The metals give their electrons to the non-metals, and this makes both of those particles a full-outer energy level
When metals lose electron(s) or when non-metals gain electrons they develop an electrical charge, these opposite charges causes them to attract forming a bond, an ionic bond
the ions in a ionic compound are arranged in a crystal lattice structure, meaning the alternate side by side (-,+,-,+) etc.

Consult your textbook or other periodic tables if required
Also notice these two types of elements are opposites
Metals
non-metals
They generally have higher melting points than non-metals and are solid at room temperature
In their purer forms their are shinier having more lustre
They are good conductors of heat/electricity
They are malleable and ductile
(ductility refers to how malleable a sustance is without breaking, the opposite of brittle)
As you can see this is how metals and non-metals are arranged on opposite side of the metalloid barrier (except hydrogen)
They generally have lower melting points with a variety of states of matter
They aren't as shiny with little lustre (diamonds unincluded) or simply colourless
They are poor conductors of heat/electricity
Less malleble or ductile (when solid) and they are very brittle
an example of a brittle substance is ice because it can't change shape without melting or snapping
Iron is malleable, soft and ductile along with copper
Notice depending on which periodic table you look at polonium might be a metal or metalloid. There will be other periodic tables you'll see later, observe how polonium will change, the same would apply to astatine (At, on the right)
Polonium and Astatine are actually debatable as they have been included and excluded as a metalloids in several different periodic tables. This topic is actually disputed however, Polonium can be a metal or metalloid, technically speaking with no official warrant.
However for textbook purposes Polonium is a metalloid
Astantine is usually regarded as a halogen in periodic tables, this way it generally avoids complaints. It generally is a metalloid but in periodic tables without metalloids (just metals and non-metals) it is regarded as a non-metal. But otherwise, it is a halogen, so this explains the dispute, because though never shown as metalloid, it is one
People only think its a non-metal but only in periodic table without metaloids
Metals are located on the right side of table with non-metals on the right, (except for hydrogen). These two types of elements are separated with a barrier of metalloids which are known to have properties in between these two types
Zoom-in/out with mouse wheel
Here the elements of this periodic table are separated into their individual groups or sections (not by classification):
First group is the akalimetals
Second group is the alkaline-earth-metals
Groups 3-12 are called transition metals
The two rows on the bottom are called lanthanides and actinides (top and bottom respectively)
The elements not apart of the metalloids or non-metals of 13-16 are called many things: poor metals, other metals, basic metals, or sometimes simply reffered to be apart of the transition metals
The barrier between the two classifications are metaloids
Beyond the metalloids but before halogens and noble gases (of which some are non-metals, in classification not group) are the non-metals
The 17th or second Left-most column are the halogens
The 18th or Left-most column are the noble gases
A group is a column, a period is a row on the periodic table of elements
Polonium and Astatine, The Disputed Ones
Group Properties
The Problem...
Though Rutherford's model of the atom was fundamentally correct it was incomplete. In 1912 A Danish scientist named Neils Bohr proposed that electrons orbited the nucleus at fixed energy levels. In order to increase to a new energy level an electron was required to gain enough energy, this amount is known as a
quantum.
This model was later on called the "Bohr-Rutherford Model
The planetary model did have a flaw however, what Rutherford failed to explain was why didn't the electrons around the positively charged nucleus spiral down and collide with the nucleus?
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Akali Metals: These are all found on the first column (Hydrogen is not an akali metal) They are extremely reactive and are generally stored in oil or kerosene (Jet/plane fuel). These elements have lower melting points and can be cut with a knife
Alkaline-earth Metals: These are found on the 2nd column of the periodic table, they're all highly reactive, though less than akali metals, they burn in air when heated
Transition Metals: These metals are special, they retain their properties for the periods they are in, they are the general metals we use, such as iron, tin, zinc, copper (steel is made partially of iron) and other valubles such as gold and silver.
Lathanides/Actinides: Lathanides are not radioactive (except Promethium) while Actinides are radioactive. In higher science grades for chemistry, you'll learn why the periodic table is shaped like this (or the one on page 207) until then you'll not need to know too much about these elements
Halogens: These elements are extremely corrosive and reactive. as you progress down the group the melting points increase meaning they start from gas to liquid to solid.
Noble Gases: These are all gases that are colourless, odourless and unreactive, these are good for preserving substance or materials, by proventing them from reacting with other particles
*Non-metals, basic metals and metalloids were unmentioned purposely and examples are on the left. (no explanation required
Trends in the periodic table of elements
Reactivity: as you progress down the 1st two columns reactivity increases, as you progress down the 17th column reactivity decreases from unreactive to reactive
Size: as you progress down the periodic table size increases, as you progress from the right to left of the periodic table size increases
Smaller to Bigger
Valence Electrons
Valence electrons are the # of electrons on the outermost shell (level) of the atom. This determines how reactive the element/atom is, the closer the valence electrons are to "8" or "0" (which practically does not exist) the more reactive the element/atom becomes. You can determine the valence electrons of neutral elements by using the periodic table. Columns:
1 have 1 valence electron
2 have 2 valence electron
13 have 3 valence electron
14 have 4 valence electron
15 have 5 valence electron
16 have 6 valence electron
17 have 7 valence electron
18 have 18 valence electron
For 3-12 it isn't important for this part but they all have the same valence electrons
Ionic bonds are mainly made from electrical charges, however the compound is actually neutral in charge because the ions charges counteract eachother
Remember:
there are no "molecules" in ionic compounds (even if you refer to the basic formula of the compound)
The attraction between the ions are so strong that it creates the crystal lattice, this causes ionic compounds to have very high melting points and some "non-existant" evaporation points (boiling points)
Crystal Lattice
Ionic compounds alone or solid are poor conductors of electricity because electrons can't travel properly in the tightly closed environment
When ionic compounds are dissolved in water on some solvent they are good conductors because the ions separate in the solvent therefore allowing the electrons to travel freely. It is similar when Ionic compounds are melted into liquids.
When ionic compounds are dissolved in water the ions of opposite charges separate due to water's "solvent properties". In this form the ions are separated, and like metioned before, they can conduct heat and electricity well.
The human body is a aqueous environment, meaning its a solution with water dissolving many compounds, and ions. These essential ions are called electrolytes and affect the body's vital processes. As a result, when you become dehydrated you not only lose water in your body but as well as the ions that are necessary for your body to function. These ions are necessary in most cells of your body, ex: potassium is necessary for nerve impulses of muscle contraction (basically meaning that potassium is necessary to move your body.
These bottles have the electrolytes inside of them as well as the ions necessary for the body's functions.
Molecular compounds (or covalent bonds) are formed when two or more different elements share electrons.
These elements/atons share electrons to attain a full outer energy level
However because elements share electrons that means that each one gives one electron that joins with the other atom's electron to form a covalent bond
For each pair of electrons is one covalent bond each
Covalent bonds can only be formed between two atoms/elements, while a compounds can be from two or more atoms.
Metals are unlikely to form molecular compounds because they do not have sufficient electrons to "share"
Covalent bonds and ionic bonds are similar in strenght
Molecular compounds may have the following prefixes in their names: mono, di, tri, tetra, penta. hexa, hepta, octa, nona and deca. each of these prefixes mean 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 repsectively
Here are few molecules
the bottom ones are of molecular compounds
Here are some atoms with their # of valence electrons
The individual bonds of atoms/elements themselves are strong as ionic bonds, but
the attraction between each of the molecules are weaker
the attraction between
molecules
are weak
2
the attraction between the
atoms
is strong
Every compound at its smallest particle is a molecule, but not every molecule is a compound.
A compound is two or more elements chemically bonded together, whereas a molecule is the smallest particle of any substance (whether element or compound) that has one or more shared pairs of electrons
This means every molecule is a part of a compound, except those that form a element, like 02, H2 or Cl2 etc. those atoms are of the same element which means it isn't a compound. But because they have one or more shared pairs of electrons, it is a molecule
Because molecular compounds have very little attraction their melting points are decently lower are they can be even liquids or gases at room temperature. Similarly, due to their weak attraction these compounds are generally softer than ionic compounds
Melting points and hardness
Prefixes
Convalent bonds and Molecular attraction
Molecule or compound or both?
Molecular compounds generally have poor electrons this is because they do not have any ions or extra electrons with them, because of this electricity does not propery flow through them
Conductivity
water is a soft, poor conducting liquid solvent
Solubility
Another distinct general difference between the type of compounds is that molecular compounds tend to be less soluable, in fact in some cases they are the solvent, such as water. If you want to dissolve molecular compounds you generally need a lot of pressure to keep them dissolved such as carbon dioxide.
Carbonated drinks
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