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Transcript of Sigmund Freud
Theory of the Universe (Metaphysics)
He rejected all transcendent metaphysics (religious concept of other state of existence, Ex: Heaven, Hell).
After seeing Darwin's theory of evolution, he has accepted that all humans are part of a single species of animal.
Freud was hoping to explain all aspects of human life scientifically.
Freud's version of materialism is that when any state of consciousness such as thoughts, memories and sensations is active, we are not committed to metaphysical dualism.
Theory of Human Nature
Freud's theories of human nature will be separated into four main areas, this will be the first:
-Freud have a strict application of determinism: all thoughts and actions have a preceding cause.
-Freud pays great attention something called slip of the tongue (hence the concept of Freudian slip), he also use this as support to his theory that the mind is far from being free and rational, it is rather rooted to our biological drives (instincts) and/or predetermined by it.
Born in Moravia, moved to Vienna in 1860.
Attended the University of Vienna as a medical student.
Although he was Austrian, he was also ethnically Jewish.
1st phase: In 1886, he set up a private practice in "nervous disease" or psychological problems.
2nd phase: Wrote and published books on his work (listed below):
The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)
Psychopathology of Everyday life (1901)
Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality(1905)
Five Lectures on Psycho-analysis (1915-17)
3rd phase: Developed the theory of "death" and "life" instincts, as well as 3 structures within out mind, ID, Ego and Super-Ego, and published several more books:
Beyond the Pleasure Principle (1920)
The Ego and the ID (1923)
The Question of Lay Analysis (1926)
The Future of an Illusion (1927)
In Civilization an Its Discontents (1939)
Human Nature (cont.)
Human Nature (cont.)
Sigmund Freud career was split into three main phases:
-This second areas focused by Freud is his postulation of unconscious mental state, as well as preconscious.
-Preconscious is a term used by Freud to imply certain thoughts that we aren't 100% aware of them all the time, but we can draw them to awareness whenever they became relevant.
-Unconscious ,however, are memories that being pushed very far into our mind that we don't normally aware of, Freud postulate that when we need to recognize an object, event, or memories that is familiar to us, we invoke our unconsciousness, so the person doesn't really aware of the thought processing part.
-Freud analyzes the mind as an iceberg floating on water, whatever part of the iceberg above the water surface is our consciousness, and whatever below is our unconsciousness, as water waves rises and falls, parts of our unconsciousness that we can now aware. Consciousness can be affected in the same way, assuming that the "water" rises and omit part of our consciousness.
-Freud also relates his theory of unconsciousness to traumatic memories, these memories
once was fully conscious to us, but since it is too painful to be acknowledge, we repressed
it to our unconsciousness.
-Freud also developed a "structure" that our minds are categorized by: the ID, Ego and SuperEgo.
"Civilization began the first time an angry person cast a word instead of a rock..."
Human Nature (cont.)
-Freud use the ID to imply to our unconscious instinctual drive: also called the child instinct, it is certain reaction and action that we take without thinking or being taught to do so.
-Freud pays a great deal to a certain type of unconscious instinctual drive, and that is sexual, to be more specific thoughts, memories, fantasies and desire for it.
-Freud also pay attention to another type of drive, which is self preservation.
-Freud categorized certain aspects of our lives to certain drive: libido (sexual) and hunger to life drive (Eros) and sadism (previously classified as aggressive manifestation of sexuality), aggression and self-destruction to death instinct (Thanatos).
-Sigmund Freud pays the most attention to sexual drive of all instinctual drives, for he thought it was the most profound.
-He developed stages of sexual development that take place as a person ages:
The oral stage- starts at birth, when a baby feed on his/her mother's breast.
The anal stage-starts from 18 months to 3 years, when a child knows how to control his/her bladder.
The phallic stage-starts from 3 to 6 years, when a kid is aware of his/her body.
-Repression: our mind's defensive mechanism, although it is considered more of a neurotic illness, when a thought or memory is too painful to bear, we pushed deep within our unconsciousness to avoid that pain from becoming conscious .
-ID, Ego, SuperEgo interactions: Ego commits actions to satisfy the demands of ID but does not transgress the moral standards of SuperEgo.
-Freud also states that if sexual development doesn't progress smoothly, that person will experience regression or become "childish".
-To analyze psychological problems, Freud developed a method
called psychoanalysis or the "talking cure", the process goes like
this: a patient lay down and talk about his or her thoughts, no
matter how embarrassing, and the psychiatrist sits nearby and
listens and analyzes what does that person need or having.
Criticism, problem(s) with theories
-Academic psychologists say Freud's theories is unscientific, either too vague to be tested or not supported by the evidence where claims are testable.
-Freud's psychoanalysis has been accused of being a religious cult.
-Freud say we are most influenced by our sexual drive, but some scientist disagree, for example: parental instinct, vastly adopted by many animals, it's the will to defend an animal's (including human) young or newborn from threats, it is optional, expensive and risky, but many species do it, such behavior is considered to be instinctive.
-In 1938, Hitler annex Austria, Jews are at stake, but because of his international fame, Nazis allow him to flee to London.
Composed and edited by Tri, Manuel and Victor
Although Freud never truly focused on metaphysics, here are some related facts: