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Chapter 15: Europe Transformed: Reform and State Building
Transcript of Chapter 15: Europe Transformed: Reform and State Building
Reform and State Building
1. The Reformation in the 16th Century
The influence of the "New Monarchies"
Niccolo Machiavelli's "The Prince"
Society still largely consisted of the same social orders but changes were occurring.
The Grievances of many led to demands for reform in the Church.
Johannes Gutenberg's Bible around 1450 and the impact of printing.
Eramus and other humanists' attempt to reform Christianity.
Intense corruption within the Catholic Church including the use of relics and indulgences.
B. Martin Luther and the Reformation in Germany
Who was Martin Luther?
Ultimate idea of Justification by faith
In 1517, he nailed the 95 Theses to the Cathedral door in Wittenberg.
Excommunication, division of the Christian church, defiance of the Emperor, and protection by the Elector of Saxony.
The divided state of the Holy Roman Empire assisted.
Emperor Charles V, the Habsburgs, and his inheritance.
Peace of Augsburg, 1555
Spread of Protestantism outside Germany.
In Switzerland, Ulrich Zwingli and John Calvin deviate substantially from Luther.
The idea of Predestination and the impact of Calvinism on society.
English Reformation under Henry VIII
Ongoing flux between Catholicism and Protestantism in England for the following two hundred years.
Eventual Catholic reaction, the Counter-Reformation.
Society of Jesus, the Jesuits, and their impact.
Council of Trent, 1545-1563, redefines and reforms Catholic teachings.
2. Europe in Crisis: 1560-1650
The Wars of Religion define this period
In Frane Catholics fought the Huguenots, French Calvinists, until eventually a Protestant inherits the throne.
Edict of Nantes in 1598.
In Spain, Philip II aggresively fights for Catholicism and attempts to crush Protestant rebels in the Netherlands.
Spain was the strongest European power of the time but gradually was declining.
England under Elizabeth I laid the foundations for its future empire.
The English defeat of the Spanish Armada.
Severe depopulation and economic problems during this period.
The establishment of the mercantilist system and the joint stock company.
Thirty years war, 1618-1648, largely in Germany but essentially the first European Civil War/World War.
The 1648 Peace of Westphalia, change in the structure of the Holy Roman Empire, the establishment of the nation-state system, and the end of the Wars of Religion.
Military Revolution and the further increase in state power through bureaucracy.
3. Responses to Crisis: The Pratice of Absolutism
The Age of Absolute Monarchs.
France under Louis XIV, heigh of influence in Europe.
Larger armies begin to develop, attempts to create a hegemonic France that were unsuccessful.
Palace of Versailles and 'l'etat c'est moi'.
Other Absolutist states such as Prussia under Frederick William and Frederick the Great.
Sparta of Central Europe
Austrian Habsburgs and continued expansion of their multiethnic empire.
Russia and its tsars, such as Ivan the Terrible and Peter the Great.
Growing westernization, modernization, and a new capital.
4. England and Limited Monarchy
Ongoing conflict between the King and Parliament.
Shift in dynasty from the Tudors to the Stuarts.
Open conflict with Charles I and absolutist tendencies.
The English Civil War, 1642-1648, was won by Parliament but quickly became a military dictatorship under Olivar Cromwell
Eventual reestablishment of monarchy but with a more limited role.
Future Stuarts, James II, were Catholic and Parliament led open rebellion against their authority.
In 1689, William and Mary assumed the throne from James II in the Glorious Revolution.
Establishment of the Limited/Constitutional Monarchy.
5. The Flourishing of European Culture.
The Baroque Period, 'awe of power'.
Dutch Realism paintings, Rembrandt.
Golden age of English literature, Elizabethian Age, William Shakespeare