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Transcript of Genetic Engineering-Animals
Genetic engineering is the process of manually changing an organism's DNA sequence.
Genes and DNA
DNA is a complex molecule found in the nucleus of all cells in all organisms. DNA is bundled up into a number of chromosomes, which differs from organism to organism. A gene is a small piece of a DNA strand. All of the DNA in your body is called your genome. Genetic engineering changes the DNA sequence, thus changing your genes.
Genetic engineering works by transferring DNA from one organism to another to give an organism a desired trait. Since DNA is a common factor in all organisms, it can be swapped from any living thing.
Genetic engineering is used for many reasons. In plants, it can be used to make them resistant to a certain insect. In animals, it is used to give desired traits to offspring. If successfully done in humans, it could give protection against genetic diseases.
Genetic engineering has been going on for a long time. Thousands of years ago we have been selectively breeding animals and plants for better traits. People have been studying genetics since the mid-1800's, and it has grown dramatically since then.
The desired gene must be located from the extracted DNA and copied-gene cloning.
Extract the DNA from that organism.
The gene may be adjusted so that may work in a better way in the new organism.
Traditional breeding is used to improve the characteristic-genetic engineering does not eliminate traditional breeding-it adds a new gene to the mix.
The transgene is delivered into the cells of the recipient organism-the transformation
First, find an organism with a trait that you want to transfer.
DNA size not to scale-
DNA size not to scale-
Mendel's work on genetics provides the basis for modern research. He experiments with pea plants to determine heredity and dominant and recessive traits.
The first genetically modified organism is created!
Scientists experiment with animals and plants
A GM mouse is produced
A giant mouse with rat growth hormones is created
Four groups of scientists create GM plants
Human growth hormones are put in a mouse-it is twice the normal size!
A GM pig is produced
The first GM plant with resistance against a definite insect species is made
A GM plant is made resistant against a certain kind of herbicide
GM corn is produced
China begins selling GM food-Virus resistant tobacco and tomatoes
Further Genetic Experiments
The first gene therapy trials on humans begin
Hormones that are used on cows to increase milk production are approved by the FDA
GM crops go on the market in the US
The birth of the first cloned animal, Dolly the sheep, was announced
The UK approves some GM plant products
The cloning of a GM lamb was announced-cloning and genetic engineering combined
Rules were created stating that consumers must be told if their product is a result of GE
The first publicly reported death in gene therapy caused by gene therapy is announced.
UK passes a regulation believed to allow cloning of human embroyos up until their 14th day of life.
The human genome is sequenced
The rules for labeling GM food and feed are revised to be more strict about whether food has the label.
A GM pig was created that creates omega-3 fatty acids
GM corn and a kind of GM potato are approved in Europe for special uses
The Eyes of Nye-Episode 4: Cloning
Scientists have made a GM tobacco plant that saves people a lot of time and effort. The plant creates a naturally male moth-attracting substance that will trap the pests.
CRISPR is a technique that edits an organism's genome. Recently, Scientists have found that CRISPR can be used to rewrite genetic defects in mice and human stem cells.
Cells Communicate with Light
Scientists created a structure called a hydrogel that is used to detect and transmit light to cells in vivio. They put some in mice and were able to detect fluorescent proteins within cells.
Rice can Fight Diarrhea
Scientists have created a type of GM rice that has a gene which allows it to fight off rotaviruses.
Genetically Modified Fashion
Researchers have put glowing traits into the silkworm genome near the silk trait. The result was fluorescent fabric.
In the modern word, we are experimenting with all kinds of DNA to give organisms the traits we want to see in them. We are also using DNA from other animals to try to cure genetic diseases
"A brief history of genetic modification." gmeducation.org. Febuary 26, 2014, from http://www.gmeducation.org/faqs/p149248-a-brief-history-of-genetic-modification.html
"What is genetic engineering and how does it work?." UNL's AgBiosafety for Educators. Febuary 26, 2014, from http://agbiosafety.unl.edu/basic_genetics.shtml
Last Name, First. "Genetic Engineering and DNA." Micro Biology Guide. Febuary 26, 2014, from http://dna.microbiologyguide.com/528-genetic-engineering-gene/
Grens, K. (Febuary 26, 2014). Pheromone Factories. The Scientist
Grens, K. (December 5, 2013). CRISPR for Cures?. The Scientist
Olena, A. (October 20, 2013). Next Generation: Cells Communicate with Light. The Scientist
Yandell, K. (August 13, 2013). GM Rice Could Fight Diarrhea. The Scientist
Yandell, K. (June 20, 2013). Genetically Modified Fashion. The Scientist
The 5 above arcticles can be accessed from this URL:
Thoughts on Genetic Engineering
There are positives and negatives to Genetic Engineering. Some people think that its okay to do these experiments on human embryos, while others think it is very wrong. Everyone has their own opinion.
Some people think that Genetic engineering is just a way to kill many lives and create messed up ones. They don't want it to continue on to create human hybrids. If this testing continues, there may even be an uprising against Genetic Engineering by those people, and experimentation would come to a halt. If scientists want to keep going, they should be careful not to experiment with the wrong stuff. I agree with them in the sense that if we make "better" versions of ourselves, then are we still human? Or are we something else?
Genetic engineering can help us in so many ways. If we do enough work, all of our genetically related diseases will be gone and people may live to be much longer and have better lives. However, scientists may not have the right tools yet for very complicated DNA transferring. It would also be very hard alone to change the Genome of an organism more than just a little.
There are so many things that can go wrong in genetic engineering that it may not be so safe to do so much work. People have good intentions, but everyone is at risk of geting harmed by GM food and other things. Overall, its up for you to decide which side is better.